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Phcog Mag. – Page 2

Antiproliferative activity of Vallaris glabra Kuntze (Apocynaceae)

Siu Kuin Wong, Yau Yan Lim, Sui Kiong Ling, Eric Wei Chiang Chan

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):232-239

Background: Our earlier study on the antiproliferative (APF) activity of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species showed that leaves of Vallaris glabra possessed strong and broad-spectrum properties. Materials and Methods: In this study, sequential extracts of leaves, flowers and stems, and fractions and isolated compounds from dichloromethane (DCM) leaf extract of V. glabra were assessed for APF activity using the sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. Apoptotic effect of MDA-MB-231 cancer cells treated with DCM leaf extract of V. glabra was studied using Hoechst 33342 dye and caspase colorimetry. Results: Both DCM extracts of leaves and flowers possessed broad-spectrum APF activity against HT-29, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKOV-3 cancer cells. From DCM leaf extract, stearic acid (SA) and ursolic acid (UA) were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by NMR and MS analyses. APF activity of SA from DCM leaf extract displayed weak inhibitory activity and scientific literature showed UA has anticancer properties against those cancer cells used in this study. MDA-MB-231 cancer cells treated with DCM leaf extract and stained with Hoechst 33342 dye provided evidence that the extract had an apoptotic effect on the cells. Caspase colorimetry showed that the apoptotic effect involved activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, but not caspase-6. Conclusion: The potential of V. glabra as a candidate species for anticancer drugs warrants further investigation.

Vegetables' juice influences polyol pathway by multiple mechanisms in favour of reducing development of oxidative stress and resultant diabetic complications

Ashok K Tiwari, D Anand Kumar, Pisupati S.R Sweeya, H Anusha Chauhan, V Lavanya, K Sireesha, K Pavithra, Amtul Zehra

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):383-391

Objective: Hyperglycemia induced generation of free radicals and consequent development of oxidative stress by polyol pathway is one of the crucial mechanisms stirring up development of diabetic complications. We evaluated influence of ten vegetables' juice on polyol pathway along with their antioxidant and antioxidative stress potentials. Materials and Methods: Aldose reductase activity was determined utilising goat lens and human erythrocytes. In goat lens, utilization of nicotinamine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and aldose reductase inhibition was assayed. In human erythrocytes, sorbitol formation was measured as an index of aldose reductase activity under normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions. Ability of juices in inhibiting oxidative damage to deoxyribose sugar and calf thymus DNA and inhibitory activity against hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis of erythrocytes was also analysed. Phytochemical contents like total polyphenol, total flavonoid and total protein were measured to find their influence on biological activities. Results: Vegetables' juice displayed varying degrees of inhibitory potentials in mitigating NADPH dependent catalytic activity of aldose reductase in goat lens, accumulation of sorbitol in human erythrocytes under different glucose concentrations; Fenton-reaction induced oxidative damage to deoxyribose sugar, and calf thymus DNA. Substantial variations in vegetables phytochemicals content were also noticed in this study. Conclusions: Vegetables' juice possesses potent activities in influencing polyol pathway by various mechanisms in favour of reducing development of oxidative stress independent of their inherent antioxidative properties. Juice of ivy gourd followed by green cucumber and ridge gourd were among the most potent for they displayed strong activities on various parameters analysed in this study. These vegetables' juice may become part of mechanism-based complementary antioxidant therapy to prevent development of diabetic complications.

Optimization of Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols, tannins and epigallocatechin gallate from barks of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville bark extracts

Jordana N. Sousa, Nathalia B. Pedroso, Leonardo L. Borges, Gerlon A., Jose R. Paula, Edemilson C. Conceicao

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):318-323

Background: Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mar.) Coville is a native plant from Brazil, rich in phenolic compounds and used on popular medicine as a wound healing agent, in the treatment of gastric lesions and as antimicrobial. Materials and Methods: Ultrassound-assisted extraction (UAE) was applied to extraction of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), total polyphenols (TP) and total tannins (TT) content from barks of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mar.) Coville. Several operating parameters, namely extraction time (min), liquid to solid ratio (mg/mL), ethanolic strength (%, v/v), were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) with a Box-Behnken design. Results: By using the desirability function approach, the optimum UAE conditions to obtain desirable extraction yields for all these metabolites simultaneously were found at the extraction time of 30 min, solid to liquid ratio of 4 mg/mL and ethanolic strength of 65. Under these conditions, the epigallocatechin gallate, total polyphenols and total tannins content were 0.31; 22.95 and 11.95 % (w/w), respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that knowledge gained from this study should be helpful to further exploit and apply this resource and also showed the feasibility of ultrasound-assisted extraction for obtaining GEGC, TP and TT from barks of S. adstrigens.

Simultaneous determination of 11 bioactive compounds in Jaeumganghwa-tang by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection

Bo-Ra Yun, Jin Bae Weon, Jiwoo Lee, Min Rye Eom, Choong Je Ma

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):256-263

Background: Jaeumganghwa-tang (JEGH) is a traditional Korean herbal medicine for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, nephritis and diabetes mellitus. Objective: A high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 11 major compounds such as 5- hydroxymethylfurfural, mangiferin, paeoniflorin, nodakenin, naringin, hesperidin, decursinol, berberine, glycyrrhizin, atractylenolide III and decursin, in JEGH. Materials and Methods: The separation was conducted on Shishedo C 18 column with gradient elution of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid-acetonitrile. Detection of wavelength was set at 205, 250, 280 and 330 nm. Results: The developed analysis showed a good linearity (R2 >0.9997). The range of limit of detection and limit of quantification were observed from 0.04 to 0.43 and from 0.11 to 1.30, respectively. The intra- and inter-day test relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 3% and the accuracy was 95.98-108.44%. The recoveries were between 92.75% and 109.19% and RSD range of recoveries was measured from 0.52% to 2.78%. Conclusion: This HPLC-DAD method can be successfully applied for simultaneous determination of 11 major compounds in JEGH samples.

Isolation and identification of cytotoxic compounds from the rhizomes of Paris quadrifolia L.

Jerzy Gajdus, Zbigniew Kaczynski, Anna Kawiak, Ewa Lojkowska, Justyna Stefanowicz-Hajduk, J. Renata Ochocka, Piotr Stepnowski

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):324-333

Background: Paris quadrifolia L. is a medicinal plant which contains steroidal saponins. The present study reports isolation and structural identification of six pennogenyl saponins obtained from P. quadrifolia rhizomes. The four spirostan saponins were obtained from P. quadrifolia for the first time. The cytotoxic effects of the sub-fractions and six compounds isolated from the plant extract were evaluated on tumour cells. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract from the rhizomes of P. quadrifolia were partinioned using column chromatography. The saponins were isolated from the obtained sub-fractions by isocratic RP HPLC and their structures were determined by means of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and MALDI TOF MS. The cytotoxic effects of the sub-fractions and the isolated compounds were tested against human promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL-60), human cervical adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa) and human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) using the [(3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: Six pennogenyl saponins were isolated from P. quadrifolia rhizomes: pennogenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (6). Pennogenyl saponins 5 and 6 exhibited cytotoxic activity against HL-60, HeLa and MCF-7 tumour cells with IC 50 values of 1.0 ± 0.04 μg/ml, 1.8 ± 0.072 μg/ml and 2.4 ± 0.096 μg/ml respectively, and 2.0 ± 0.08 μg/ml, 2.5 ± 0.125 μg/ml and 3.2 ± 0.128 μg/ml respectively. Conclusion: Compounds 1 -4 were isolated from this species for the first time.

Molecular docking studies of flavonoids for their inhibition pattern against β-catenin and pharmacophore model generation from experimentally known flavonoids to fabricate more potent inhibitors for Wnt signaling pathway

Hira Iftikhar, Sajid Rashid

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):264-271

Background: Canonical Wnt signaling plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, which correlates with the accumulation of β-catenin in cell due to inactivation of glycogen synthetase kinase-3 β. However, uncontrolled expression of β-catenin leads to fibromatosis, sarcoma and mesenchymal tumor formation. Recently, a number of polyphenolic compounds of naturally occurring flavonoid family have been screened for the inhibition of Wnt signaling. Objective: Elucidation of the binding mode of inhibitors to β-catenin, reporting more potent inhibitors for the disease-causing protein and designing a pharmacophore model based on naturally occurring compounds, flavonoids. Materials and Methods: In this study, a comparative molecular docking analysis was performed to elucidate the binding mode of experimentally reported and unknown inhibitors. Based on the knowledge of geometry, binding affinity and drug score, we described a subset of novel inhibitors. Results: The binding energy of known inhibitors (isorhamnetin, fisetin, genistein and silibinin) was observed in a range of −5.68 to −4.98 kcal/mol, while novel inhibitors (catechin, luteolin, coumestrol and β-naphthoflavone) exhibited −6.50 to −5.22 kcal/mol. We observed good placement and strong interactions of selected compounds inside the binding pocket of β-catenin. Moreover, flavonoid family members and T cell factors 4 (TCF4) compete for β-catenin binding by sharing common binding residues. Conclusion: This study will largely help in understanding the molecular basis of β-catenin/TCF4 inhibition through flavonoids by exploring their structural details. Finally, the novel inhibitors proposed in this study need further attention to uncover cancer treatment and with the generated pharmacophore model, more and potent β-catenin inhibitors can be easily screened.

Effect of ultrasound on the isoflavonoid production in Genista tinctoria L. suspension cultures

Lenka Tumova, Jiri Tuma, Helena Hendrychova

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):425-429

Background: Application of ultrasound (US) to biotechnology is relatively new but several processes that take place in the presence of cells or enzymes are activated by ultrasonic waves. Genista tinctoria L. (Fabaceae) is rich on various kind of flavonoids, including isoflavones with valuable estrogenic activity. Objective: This study verified use of low-energy US elicitor to enhance secondary metabolite production in plant cell cultures. Materials and Methods: Suspension cultures of G. tinctoria cells was exposed to low-power US (with fixed frequency 35 kHz and power level 0.1 mW/cm 3 ) for period 1-5 min. Results: The US exposure significantly stimulated genistin content (0.8 mg/g DW) after 3 min of US treatment (sampled after 72 h). The highest daidzein level (1.4 mg/g DW) was reached after US irradiation for 5 min and 168 h sampling. Conclusion: The achieved results suggest that US can act as a potent abiotic elicitor to induce the defense responses of plant cells and to stimulate secondary metabolite production in plant cell cultures.

Anti-cholinesterase activity of the standardized extract of Syzygium aromaticum L.

Manoj K. Dalai, Santanu Bhadra, Sushil K. Chaudhary, Arun Bandyopadhyay, Pulok K. Mukherjee

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):276-282

Background: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is a well-known culinary spice with strong aroma; contains a high amount of oil known as clove oil. The major phyto-constituent of the clove oil is eugenol. Clove and its oil possess various medicinal uses in indigenous medicine as an antiseptic, anti-oxidant, analgesic and neuroprotective properties. Thus, it draws much attention among researchers from pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-cholinesterase activity of the methanol extract of clove, its oil and eugenol. Materials and Methods: In vitro anti-cholinesterase activity of S. aromaticum was performed by a thin layer chromatography bio autography, 96 well micro titer plate and kinetic methods. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis was carried out to identify the biomarker compound eugenol in clove oil. Results: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition study revealed that eugenol possess better inhibition of the enzymes than extract and oil. Clove extract, its oil and eugenol showed better inhibition of AChE than BChE. Polyphenolic compound eugenol was detected through RP-HPLC analysis. The content of eugenol in essential oil was found to be 0.5 μg/ml. Kinetic analysis of the cholinesterase inhibition study of the extract; clove oil and eugenol have shown that they possess mixed type of inhibition for AChE and non-competitive type of inhibition for BChE. Conclusion: These results might be useful in explaining the effect of clove as anti-cholinesterase agent for the management of cognitive ailments like Alzheimer's disease.

Revisiting "Vegetables" to combat modern epidemic of imbalanced glucose homeostasis

Ashok Kumar Tiwari

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):207-213

Vegetables have been part of human food since prehistoric times and are considered nutritionally necessary and good for health. Vegetables are rich natural resource of biological antioxidants and possess capabilities of maintaining glucose homeostasis. When taken before starch-rich diet, juice also of vegetables such as ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd, chayote and juice of leaves of vegetables such as radish, Indian Dill, ajwain, tropical green amaranth, and bladder dock are reported to arrest significantly the rise in postprandial blood glucose level. Juice of vegetables such as ash gourd, squash gourd, and tropical green amaranth leaves are observed to tone-down sweet-beverages such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion. On the other hand, juice of egg-plant and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and palak are reported to augment starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion; and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and radish supplement to the glucose-induced postprandial glycemia. Vegetables possess multifaceted antihyperglycemic activities such as inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase, inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1β in liver and skeletal muscles, and insulin mimetic and secretagogue activities. Furthermore, they are also reported to influence polyol pathway in favor of reducing development of oxidative stress, and consequently the development of diabetic complications. In the wake of emergence of modern maladaptive diet-induced hyperglycemic epidemic therefore, vegetables may offer cost-effective dietary regimen to control diet-induced glycemic over load and future development of diabetes mellitus. However, for vegetables have been reported to do both, mitigate as well as supplement to the diet-induced postprandial glycemic load, care is required in selection of vegetables when considered as medicament.

Two novel antifungals, acornine 1 and acornine 2, from the bark of mangrove plant Aegiceras corniculatum (Linn.) Blanco from Sundarban Estuary

Vinod K. Gupta, Kalishankar Mukherjee, Amit Roy

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):342-349

Background: Microbes have been implicated in a wide variety of human diseases many of which are of life-threatening nature. New antimicrobials are urgently needed not only for combating these organisms but also to counter the menace of the harmful microbes developing resistance against drugs at alarming rates. Mangrove plants are rich sources of secondary metabolites having many beneficial biological activities including antimicrobial ones. True to this fact, this report describes identification, isolation and partial characterization of two novel antifungal compounds from Aegiceras corniculatum, a mangrove plant from Indian Sundarban estuary. Materials and Methods: Two compounds, named as Acornine 1 and Acornine 2, having antifungal activities were isolated from the bark of A. corniculatum, a mangrove plant, by using standard techniques. The compounds were characterized using routine microbiological and physicochemical methods. Results: Partial structural characterization of the two compounds indicated they are oleanane triterpenoids with linked sugar moieties. While both the compounds exhibited growth inhibition in tested Gram positive bacteria, Acornine 2 in particular demonstrated strong antifungal activities against several pathogenic fungi tested. Results also indicated that various environmental factors may govern the secondary metabolite profiles of the same mangrove plants growing in different geographical areas. Conclusion: Tissue extracts of Aegiceras corniculatum, a mangrove plant from Indian Sundarban estuary, exhibited the presence of remarkable antifungal activities. The isolated compounds responsible for such activities, named as Acornine 1 and Acornine 2, appear to have potential in food processing and health care industry. They need to be studied further.

Inhibitory effects of ginseng seed on melanin biosynthesis

Yeonmi Lee, Kyoung-Tack Kim, Sung Soo Kim, Jinyoung Hur, Sang Keun Ha, Chang-Won Cho, Sang Yoon Choi

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):272-275

Background: Ginseng root has been traditionally used for the treatment of many diseases in Korea. However, so far ginseng seed has been mostly unused and discarded. As part of our ongoing research on the ginseng seeds, the inhibitory effect of ginseng seeds on melanin production was verified to assess their potential as a skin depigmenting substance. Materials and Methods: The present study measured the inhibitory effect of ginseng seeds on melanin production through the tyrosinase inhibitory effect and analyzed their effects on melanin production in melan-a-cells. Results: Ethanol extract of ginseng seed was applied to melan-a-cells at a concentration of 100 ppm and melanin production was reduced by 35.1% without cytotoxicity. In addition, the ethanol extract of ginseng seed was shown to reduce tyrosinase activity. Conclusion: Because the results showed excellent melanin inhibitory activity compared with that obtained by arbutin, ethanol extracts of ginseng leaf and ginseng root at the same concentration, it can be concluded that ginseng seeds show great potential as a skin depigmenting substance.

Pharmacodynamic studies on the isolated active fraction of Acacia farnesiana (L.) willd

Bino Kingsley, Saminathan Kayarohanam, Pemaiah Brindha, Appian Subramoniam

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):283-287

Background: Acacia farnesiana is a medicinal plant that grows throughout tropical parts of Indian subcontinent, particularly in sandy soils of river beds in Northern India. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic activity of the extracts using glucose tolerance test. Isolation of an active fraction (AF) from the active extract (water extract) using alcohol precipitation and to get insight to the mechanism of action of the AF of A. farnesiana. Materials and Methods: Glucose uptake by isolated rat diaphragm of the AF was performed. Further the effect of release of Insulin from isolated and cultured pancreatic β-cell was determined. Besides, effect of oral administration of the AF was compared with that of intraperitonial administration. The effect of AF on serum glucose levels in orally glucose loaded rats was compared with that of intraperitoneal glucose loaded rats. Results: The water extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level. When precipitated with alcohol, the activity was found in the soluble fraction. Glucose uptake in the isolated rat hemidiaphragm, was increased by the AF at 40 μg/ml concentration, the AF did not significantly influence insulin release from cultured islets. The AF was found to be effective in orally glucose loaded in contrast to intraperitonial route. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that this plant is promising for further studies leading to the development of valuable medicine for diabetes.

Screening of siddha medicinal plants for its in-vitro acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity

Madhuri Kadiyala, Sivasankaran Ponnusankar, Kannan Elango

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):294-298

Background: The plants selected for the study were traditionally used in siddha system of medicine in neurological disorders. Aim: The aim of the following study isto screen the plant species for both acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuchE) inhibition by in-vitro Ellman's method and a thin layer chromatography bioautographic assay for newer drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Materials and Methods: Ellman's colorimetric method was performed in a 96 well micro plate for cholinesterases inhibition using galantamine as standard drug. Results: Present studies confirmed that out of all the tested extracts Hemidesmus indicus R.Br (HI) showed considerable IC 50 values for AchE (28.40 ± 0.92 μg/mL) and BuchE (43.47 ± 0.64 μg/mL) inhibition which indicates that HI extract has considerable specificity toward AchE and BuchE compared with all the tested extracts and the activity was followed by Vernonia anthelmintica (VA) Willd and Saussurea lappa Clarke (SL). The bioautograms also confirmed the activity potent extracts. Conclusion: Besides various bioactivities HI, VA and SL exhibited considerable cholinesterases inhibition making it to consider these species for further investigation of new compounds.

Determination of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde of crude and processed fructus corni in freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis sampling and liquid chromatography

Enhong Ouyang, Chengrong Zhang, Xiaomeng Li

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2011 7(28):271-276

Background: Fructus Corni is derived from the dry ripe sarcocarp of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) is an important active composition of the Fructus Corni. However, there have been no reports on the concentration of 5-HMF in freely moving rats using microdialysis coupled with HPLC. Materials and Methods: The concentration of 5-HMF in free-moving rats after intra-gastric (i.g.) administration of the water extract of Fructus Corni and JZP was analyzed by microdialysis coupled with high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC). Results: Results demonstrated that the concentration of 5-HMF in microdialysate was 1.4951 μg/l, but higher in rat microdialysate after i.g. administration of the aqueous extract of JZP (5.2662 μg/l). Conclusion: This method is proved to be rapid, accurate and simple. Real-time in vivo monitoring the concentration of 5-HMF provides the theoretical basis for further explaining the processing mechanism of Fructus Corni.

Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of the whole leaf extract of Aloe ferox Mill.

Olubunmi Abosede Wintola, Anthony Jide Afolayan

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2011 7(28):325-333

Background: Aloe ferox Mill. (Asphodelaceae) is used in South Africa for the treatment of constipation among various ailments. Despite the extensive studies conducted on the antioxidant activities of the leaf gel and pulp extract of the plant, there is no information on the antioxidant properties of the whole leaf extract of the species. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of ethanol, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of A. ferox were investigated spectrophotometrically against 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2Ͳ-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) diammonium salt, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxidation and ferric reducing power. Total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, tannins, alkaloids and saponins were also determined using the standard methods. Results: The percentage compositions of phenols (70.33), flavonols (35.2), proanthocyanidins (171.06) and alkaloids (60.9) were significantly high in the acetone extract, followed by the ethanol extract with values of 70.24, 12.53, 76.7 and 23.76 respectively, while the least composition was found in the aqueous extract. Moreover, both flavonoids and saponins contents were appreciably high in both methanol and ethanol extracts, while others were very low. Tannins levels were, however, not significantly different (P > 0.05) in all the solvent extracts. At 0.5 mg/ml, the free radical scavenging activity of the methanol, acetone and ethanol extracts showed higher inhibition against ABTS, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radicals. Whereas, scavenging activity of the extracts against DPPH* and lipid peroxidation were observed at a concentration of 0.016 and 0.118 mg/ml respectively in comparison to the butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT), gallic acid and rutin. The ferric reducing potential of the extracts was concentration dependent and significantly different from that of vitamin C and BHT. Conclusion: The present study showed high level of radical scavenging activity by ethanol and methanol whole leaf extracts of A. ferox with higher antioxidant activities than acetone and aqueous extracts. The significant differences show that the whole leaf extract could be used as a potent antioxidant in medicine and food industries.

Neuroprotective activity of the methanolic extract of Lonicera japonica in glutamate-injured primary rat cortical cells

Jin Bae Weon, Hye Jin Yang, Bohyoung Lee, Bo-Ra Yun, Ju Hee Ahn, Hyeon Yong Lee, Choong Je Ma

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2011 7(28):284-288

Background: We previously reported that the extracts of several Korean medicinal plants showed neuroprotective activity in glutamate-injured primary culutres of rat cortical cells. Objective: Among them, the effect of the methanolic extract of Lonicera japonica flower on the glutamate-induced neuronal cell death and its potential mechanism of action was investigated. Results: Treatment by the methanolic extract of L. japonica flower significantly protected neuronal cells against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. It decreased the calcium influx that accompanies the glutamate induced excitotoxicity of neuronal cells, and inhibited the subsequent overproduction of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species and peroxide to the level of control cells. In addition, it preserved cellular activity of superoxide dismutase, an antioxidative enzyme reduced by glutamate insult. Conclusions: According to this data, the methanolic extract of L. japonica flower significantly protected neuronal cells against glutamate excitotoxicity via antioxidative activity.

Simultaneous determination of geniposide, chlorogenic acid, crocin1, and rutin in crude and processed fructus gardeniae extracts by high performance liquid chromatography

Enhong Ouyang, Chengrong Zhang, Xiaomeng Li

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2011 7(28):267-270

Background: Fructus Gardeniae, commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) called Zhizi in chinese, is derived from the dried fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis of the Madder Family. To our knowledge, previously reported analytical methods were not developing for simultaneous determination of geniposide, chlorogenic acid, crocin1, and rutin in Fructus Gardeniae and its processed products of chaozheng pin (CZP) extracts. Materials and Methods: In this study, a HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination four major active components in Fructus Gardeniae and its processed products. Results: The contents of geniposide, chlorogenic acid, crocin1, and rutin in Fructus Gardeniae samples analyzed were 2.492 – 4.242%, 0.162 – 0.407%, 0.417 -0.837%, and 0.116 – 0.251%, respectively. Conclusion: The developed method can be applied to the intrinsic quality control of Fructus Gardeniae.

Hepatoprotective and in vitro antioxidant effect of Carthamus tinctorious L, var Annigeri-2-, an oil-yielding crop, against CCl 4 -induced liver injury in rats

Mahadevappa Paramesha, Chapeyil K Ramesh, Venkatarangaiah Krishna, Yelegara S Ravi Kumar, Karur M.M. Parvathi

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2011 7(28):289-297

Background: The present investigation evaluates the hepatoprotective and in vitro antioxidant effect of methanolic extract and its isolated constituent, dehydroabietylamine, in Carthamus tinctorious L, var Annigeri-2-, an oil yielding crop. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective effects were estimated for the parameters viz, total bilirubin, total protein, serum alanine amino transaminase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and along with the pathological findings of hepatotoxicity. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging assays: DPPH, nitric oxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical, reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability and total antioxidant capacity. Results: Both the methanolic extract (at 150 and 300 mg/kg bw) and dehydroabietylamine (at 50 mg/kg bw) showed significant liver protection against CCl 4 -induced liver damage that was comparable with the standard drug, silymarin (100 mg/kg bw), in reducing the elevated serum enzyme markers. The liver sections of the animals treated with dehydroabietylamine elicit a significant liver protection compared with the methanolic extract against CCl 4 -induced liver damage. Further, both the methanolic extract and dehydroabietylamine exhibited a considerable and dose-dependent scavenging activity of DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical. Similarly, in the reducing power assay, the results were very persuasive. In addition, the Fe 2+ chelating activity and the total antioxidant assay established the antioxidant property of the methanolic extract and its isolated constituent. Among the two experimental samples, dehydroabietylamine proved to be more effective for the said parameters. Conclusion: The potent antioxidant and its correlative hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract and isolated constituent dehydroabietylamine is therefore attributed to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.

Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants

Mohammad M Hudaib, Khaled A Tawaha, Mohammad K Mohammad, Areej M Assaf, Ala Y Issa, Feras Q Alali, Talal A Aburjai, Yasser K Bustanji

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2011 7(28):320-324

Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 μg/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC 50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%). These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC 50 = 53.7 μg/ml), Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 μg/ml), Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 μg/ml), Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 μg/ml), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 μg/ml), and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 μg/ml). Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition), Helianthemum ledifolium (L.) Mill. (28.4%), Majorana syriaca (L.) Kostel. (25.1%), and Mentha spicata L. (22.5%) showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22-30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders.

Bioactive constituents from Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. and Rhus coriaria L

Marawan M Shabana, Aly M El Sayed, Miriam F Yousif, Abeer M El Sayed, Amany A Sleem

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2011 7(28):298-306

Background: The leaf ethanol extract of Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. has evidenced medicinal value due to its hepatoprotective activity. It demonstrated inhibitory effects on test standard microbes approximated to 40% the potency of ofloxacin and fluconazole. The same extract evidenced in vitro cytotoxicity on human cell lines, liver carcinoma HEPG2, larynx carcinoma HEP2, and colon carcinoma HCT116 cell lines when compared to doxorubicin. Materials and Methods: Fractionation of the leaf ethanol extract led to the isolation of the polyphenols, ethyl gallate, and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, a hydrocarbon, hendecane, the fatty acid ester, methyl linoleate, and four triterpenoids, betulonic acid, 3-acetyl-methyl betulinate, lupenone and lupeol for the first time, in addition to the previously reported phenol acids and flavonoids, gallic acid, methyl gallate, quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-galactoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside. Results: The ethanol extract of the fruit of the genetically related Rhus coriaria L., known as sumac, afforded protocatechuic acid, isoquercitrin, and myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside from the fruits for the first time, in addition to the previously reported phenol acids and flavonoids, gallic acid, methyl gallate, kaempferol, and quercetin. Conclusion: The leaf ethanol extract of H. caffrum Bernh. exhibited variable anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities, besides the hepatoprotective, in vitro cytotoxic and anti-microbial activities.

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