Roopesh Jain, Susmit Kosta, Archana Tiwari
Pharmacognosy Research 2010 2(6):393-394
Roopesh Jain, Susmit Kosta, Archana Tiwari
Pharmacognosy Research 2010 2(6):393-394
SH Shukla, AK Saluja, SS Pandya
Pharmacognosy Research 2010 2(6):359-363
Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA) and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME) were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and humoral antibody (HA) titre. Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count. Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant.
Pharmacognosy Research 2010 2(6):385-387
About 7,200 medicinal plants are known to occur in India, of which, the leaves of a few hundred plants have medicinal properties. Identification of leaf drugs using venation is considered as one of the most reliable and convenient methods. Leaf identification by mechanical means may often lead to wrong identification. Due to the growing volume of illegal trade/malpractice in the crude drug industry on the one hand and lack of sufficient experts on the other, a much faster, convenient and reliable method is mandatory for the identification of Indian leaf drugs. Therefore, a new automated or semi-automated identification system based on venation pattern is inevitable for the present day condition to identify and authenticate the leaves of Indian medicinal plants.
Sanjib Bhattacharya, Pallab K Haldar
Pharmacognosy Research 2010 2(6):355-358
Background: Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae), called pointed gourd in English is a dioecious climber grown in India and used traditionally for various medicinal purposes. Methods: Present study was aimed to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic effect of dichloromethane (DCTD), methanol (METD), and aqueous (AQTD) extracts of T. dioica root using Allium cepa root meristems by keeping them in different concentrations of each test extract under specific experimental conditions followed by determination of root growth inhibition (root length and number) and mitotic index. Results: All the extracts significantly demonstrated concentration-dependent inhibition of root length and number and reduction in mitotic index, indicating antimitotic activity demonstrating cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. DCTD was found to be the most potent (EC 50 : 2.8 mg/ml), followed by METD and AQTD. Conclusion: The present study therefore, establishes promising in vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic property of T. dioica root against the test system.
HV Annegowda, LN Anwar, MN Mordi, S Ramanathan, SM Mansor
Pharmacognosy Research 2010 2(6):368-373
Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts from T. catappa leaves obtained by different intervals of sonication. Methods: Three commonly used methods were followed to evaluate phenolic content and four in vitro methods like 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant potency (FRAP), and total antioxidant capacity assays for measuring the antioxidant activities. Antioxidant values of these assays were expressed in terms of milligrams vitamin C equivalent (VCE) antioxidant activities. Results: This study showed that extract obtained with 40 minutes of sonication possessed significant (P < 0.05) polyphenolic contents compared to 20 and 60 minutes sonication and control (24 hour maceration). Moreover, sonication of T. catappa leaf above 40 minutes was found to be unsuitable for extracting out phenolic contents. Even the results of antioxidant assays showed that 40 minutes of the sonicated extract exhibited significant (P < 0.05) VCE values compared to extracts obtained at different intervals of sonication and control. Conclusions: In sonication extraction method 40 minutes is an ideal time to obtain extract enriched with high polyphenolic content with good antioxidant activity from T. catappa leaves.
RD Sharma, AR Veerpathran, G Dakshinamoorthy, KN Sahare, K Goswami, M.V.R. Reddy
Pharmacognosy Research 2010 2(6):350-354
Introduction: Tropical disease research scheme of World Health Organization has duly recognized traditional medicine as alternative for antifilarial drug development. Polyphenolic compounds present in traditionally used herbal medicines are natural antioxidants; however, paradoxically they may exert pro-oxidant effect. Popular drug diethyl carbamazine citrate harnesses the innate inflammatory response and the consequent oxidative assault to combat invading microbes. Methods: With this perspective, extracts of Vitex negundo L. (roots), Butea monosperma L. (leaves), Aegle marmelos Corr. (leaves), and Ricinus communis L. (leaves) were selected to explore the possible role of oxidative rationale in the antifilarial effect in vitro. Results: Apart from the last, other three plant extracts were reported to have polyphenolic compounds. Dose-dependent increase was found in the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation for all the three plant extracts except Ricinus communis L. (leaves). Such increase in oxidative parameters also showed some degree of plant-specific predilection in terms of relatively higher level of particular oxidative parameter. High degree of correlation was observed between the antifilarial effect and the levels of corresponding oxidative stress parameters for these three plants. However, extracts of Ricinus communis L. (leaves) which is relatively deficient in polyphenolic ingredients recorded maximum 30% loss of motility and also did not show any significant difference in various stress parameters from corresponding control levels. Conclusion: These results reveal that targeted oxidative stress might be crucial in the pharmacodynamics.
Mahmoud I Nassar, El-Sayed A Aboutabl, Rania F Ahmed, Ezzel-Din A El-Khrisy, Khaled M Ibrahim, Amany A Sleem
Pharmacognosy Research 2010 2(6):325-329
Background: Myrtus species are characterized by the presence of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, volatile oils and fatty acids. They are remedies for variety of ailments. This study therefore investigated medicinal effects of Myrtus communis L. Methods: Bioactivity studies of Myrtus communis L. leaves were carried out on volatile oil, 7% methanol and aqueous extracts and the isolated compounds myricetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-∝-rhamnopyranoside and gallic acid. Results: Determination of the median lethal dose (LD 50 ) revealed that the volatile oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts were practically nontoxic and highly safe as no lethality was observed. The tested materials (volatile oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts, myricetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-∝-rhamnopyranoside and gallic acid) showed significant antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects as compared with control groups and reference drugs. Conclusion : Administration of extracts of M. communis leaves could be safe at the dose used in this study.
Sharada L Deore, Somshekhar S Khadabadi
Pharmacognosy Research 2010 2(6):343-349
Background: The present communication deals with the identification and characterization of bioactive principles from the roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum. Method: Methanolic extract and its fractions were used to isolate different phytoconstituents. The structures of isolated compounds were characterized and elucidated with chemical and spectroscopic techniques such as Infra Red, Nuclear Mass Resonace and Mass spectroscopy experiments. Fatty acids were characterized by GC-MS analysis. Result: Three Fatty acids were isolated and confirmed. One sterol stigmasterol was isolated. One new saponin named as Chlorophytoside-I (3b, 5a, 22R, 25R)-26-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-22-hydroxy-furostan-12-one-3 yl O-β-D-galactopyranosyl (1-4) glucopyranoside was isolated. Conclusion: The roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum contain three important fatty acids, common sterol stigmasterol and one furostanol saponins.
Abhishek Bhanot, Richa Shri
Pharmacognosy Research 2010 2(6):374-384
Introduction: Diabetic Neuropathy (DN) is a major microvascular complication of uncontrolled diabetes. This may result from increased oxidative stress that accompanies diabetes. Hence plants with antioxidant action play an important role in management of diabetes and its complications. Materials and Methods: This study was designed to evaluate preventive as well as curative effect of methanol extracts of outer scales and edible portions of two plants with established antioxidant action – Allium cepa and Allium sativum, in induced DN in albino mice. Mice were divided into control, diabetic and test extracts treated groups. Test extracts were administered daily at a dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days, in the preventive group prior to onset of DN, and in the curative group after the onset of DN. Hyperalgesia and oxidative stress markers were assessed. STZ-diabetic mice showed a significant thermal hyperalgesia (as assessed by the tail-flick test), indicating development of DN. Results: Treatment with test extracts prevented loss in body weight, decreased plasma glucose level, and significantly ameliorated the hyperalgesia, TBARS, serum nitrite and GSH levels in diabetic mice. Conclusion: Methanol extract of outer scales of onion has shown most significant improvement; may be due to higher content of phenolic compounds in outer scales of A. cepa.
Sameera R Samarakoon, Ira Thabrew, Prasanna B Galhena, Dilip De Silva, Kamani H Tennekoon
Pharmacognosy Research 2010 2(6):335-342
Background: A decoction (hot-water extract) comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds), Hemidesmus indicus (roots), and Smilax glabra (rhizome) has been reported to prevent chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenic changes in rats and to exert significant cytotoxic effects on human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. However, the decoction used in previous studies to determine cytotoxicity was not standardized. Further, during preparation of pharmaceuticals for clinical use, it is more convenient to use an ethanolic extract. Therefore this study was carried out to (a) develop standardized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plant mixture (N. sativa, H. indicus, and S. glabra) used in the preparation of the original decoction, and (b) compare the cytotoxic effects of these two extracts by evaluating cytotoxicity to the human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line. Methods: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts have been standardized by evaluating organoleptic characters, physicochemical properties, qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents, and analysis of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) profiles. Cytotoxic potentials of the above standardized extracts were compared by evaluating their effects on the survival and overall cell activity of HepG2 cells by use of the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl) -2, 5 – biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assays. Results: Results from MTT and SRB assays demonstrated that both extracts exerted strong dose-dependent in vitro cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells. The standardized aqueous extract showed a marginally (though significantly, P<0.05) higher cyotoxic potential than the ethanolic extract. Thymoquinone, an already known cytotoxic compound isolated from N. sativa seeds was only observed in the standardized ethanolic extract. Thus, compounds other than thymoquinone appear to mediate the cytotoxicity of the standardized aqueous extract of this poly-herbal preparation. Conclusion: It may be concluded that results obtained in the present study could be used as a diagnostic tool for the correct identification of these aqueous or ethanolic extracts and would be useful for the preparation of a standardized pharmaceutical product that may be used in the future for clinical therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Jaydip Ghodasara, Anil Pawar, Chinmay Deshmukh, Bhanudas Kuchekar
Pharmacognosy Research 2010 2(6):388-392
Background: Renal epithelial cell injury by reactive oxygen species is pre-requisite step in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis. Rutin and curcumin are polyphenolic compounds known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, but their effect on urolithiasis is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we have investigated the inhibitory effect of rutin and curcumin on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in Wistar albino rats. Methods: Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced experimentally by administration of 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol with 1% w/v ammonium chloride in drinking water for three days followed by only 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol for 25 days. Rutin (20 mg/kg body weight) and curcumin (60 mg/kg body weight) were given once daily for 28 days by oral route. After treatment period, calcium and oxalate levels in urine and kidney tissue homogenate were measured. Kidney was also used for histopathological examination. Results: Stone-induction with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride resulted in elevated levels of calcium and oxalate in the urine and kidney sample, whereas supplementation of rutin and curcumin restored it near to normal. Histopathological study revealed minimum tissue damage and less number of calcium oxalate deposits in kidney of animal treated with rutin and curcumin as compared to calculi-induced animal. Conclusion: The data suggest that the rutin and curcumin inhibits calcium oxalate urolithiasis. This effect is mediated possibly through a lowering of urinary concentration of stone forming constituents, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
D Jaya Prakash, S ArulKumar, M Sabesan
Pharmacognosy Research 2010 2(6):330-334
Backgorund: Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE), is known for its antidepressant effect. Methods: In the present study we investigated the effect of H. perforatum gold nanoparticles (Nanohypericum-HPGNPs) protective role against restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in mice. Animals were immobilized for a period of 6 hrs/day. HPE (200 mg/kg) and nanohypericum (20 mg/kg) were administered 30 minutes before the animals were subjected to acute immobilized stress. Behavioral test parameters for anxiety and spatial memory were assessed followed by biochemical parmeters (lipid peroxidation, super oxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, etc.) subsequently. Results: The behavior study showed severe anxiety and memory loss compared to unstressed animals. Biochemical analyses revealed an increase in lipid per oxidation, depletion of super oxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase activity and glutathione per oxidase as compared to unstressed animal. Twenty one days of H. perforatum and nanohypericum treatment in a dose of 200 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively, significantly attenuated restraint stress-induced behavioral and oxidative damage. Conclusion: In conclusion nanohypericum prove the modest activity than the HPE.
Manjit Singh, Vijender Kumar, Ishpinder Singh, Vinod Gauttam, Ajudhia Nath Kalia
Pharmacognosy Research 2010 2(6):364-367
Background: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. (MJL) (Nyctaginaceae) leaves for scientific validation of the folklore claim of the plant. The leaves are used as traditional folk medicine in the south of Brazil to treat inflammatory and painful diseases. Cosmetic or dermo-pharmaceutical compositions containing MJL are claimed to be useful against inflammation and dry skin. Methods: Aqueous extract of the leaves was prepared by cold maceration. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema models in Wistar albino rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The aqueous extract has shown significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of paw oedema, 37.5% and 54.0% on 4 th hour at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Similar pattern of paw edema inhibition was seen in formalin-induced paw edema model. The maximum percentage inhibition in paw edema was 32.9% and 43.0% on 4 th day at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of the leaves possess significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory potential.
Shradha Bisht, SS Sisodia
Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2010 1(1):58-65
In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has collected to show the immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. More than 13,000 plants have been studied in recent years. Coffee is the most frequently consumed functional food around the globe. The average consumption per capita in the United States is approximately 4.4 kg annually at a cost of $164.71 per individual. These statistics provide compelling motivation to investigate the consequences of such large-scale consumption of this beverage. Coffee also has a rich medical history. The therapeutic benefits of coffee are now supported by a rapidly growing and significant level of scientific validation. Coffee is a medium-sized tree of the Rubiacea family, living up to 25 years, and grows to a height of 6-15 m. Traditionally, different parts of the coffee plants are used for influenza, anemia, edema, asthenia and rage, hepatitis and liver troubles, externally for nervous shock, as a stimulant for sleepiness and drunkenness, as an antitussive in flu and lung ailment, as a cardiotonic and a neurotonic and for asthmas. The present review on Coffea arabica aims to compile data generated through the research activity using modern scientific approaches and innovative scientific tools in recent years and potential clinical applications of the functional food that is humbly known as the coffee bean. The data in the present review have been organized in various sections according to pharmacological activities. One section in the present review deserves special mention, i.e. on diabetes, as the World Health Organization stated diabetes as a basic health indicator. The number of patients with this ailment continues to increase at the rate of about 1 million new patients per year.
SO Oyedemi, G Bradley, AJ Afolayan
Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2010 1(1):33-39
Background: Strychnos henningsii Gilg is widely used in South African traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. However, no safety studies have been conducted on its toxicological profile. Materials and Methods: The effect of the oral administration of the aqueous bark extract of this plant at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg was investigated on the hematological and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats for 28 days. Results: Treatment with the plant extract did not significantly (P > 0.05) alter the levels of hemoglobin, red blood cell, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, large unstained cell and organs body weight ratio of the kidneys, livers, lungs and hearts. Also, the levels of eosinophils, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, glucose, sodium as well as calcium were not significantly different from the control. Meanwhile, the concentrations of platelets, monocytes, basophils and white blood cells significantly decreased while those of the mean corpuscular hemoglobin, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases were increased. Moreover, the levels of conjugated bilirubin and mean corpuscular volume were effectively increased at specific doses. The levels of cholesterol and triglycerides as well as chlorine were remarkably decreased at the highest dose. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest that sub-acute administration of S. henningsii extract may not be completely safe as oral remedy due to the impairment observed in the normal functioning of white blood cells.
Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2010 1(1):55-55
TR Prashith Kekuda, KS Shobha, R Onkarappa
Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2010 1(1):30-32
Background: The Western ghats, the range of hills running along India's west coast, are well known for their rich and unique assemblage of flora and fauna. The present study was performed to evaluate the insecticidal potential of Actinomycetes isolated from the soils of the Western ghats of Agumbe, Karnataka. Methods: For isolation, the serially diluted soil sample was plated on Starch casein agar and incubated aerobically. The actinomycete isolates were identified by various parameters such as colony morphology, spore arrangement, staining, and biochemical reactions. The isolates were grown in Starch casein broth for seven days, the culture broth was extracted with butanol solvent and concentrated to get crude extract. Insecticidal activity of different concentrations of butanol extract of the isolates was determined against the second instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The larvicidal effect, in terms of mortality of larvae, of the extracts was determined by counting the number of dead larvae after 24 hours. Results: Two actinomycete isolates were recovered from the soil sample and were identified as the species of Streptomyces on the basis of phenotypic, microscopic, biochemical, and staining characteristics. The colonies of the Streptomyces isolate 1 were creamish-white with yellow pigmentation and the spore arrangement was straight, whereas colonies of the Streptomyces isolate 2 were light grey with dark green pigmentation. The spore arrangement in isolate 2 was of the open loop type. Both the isolates were Gram-positive, non-acid fast, and caused hydrolysis of starch and casein. The insecticidal activity of different concentrations, namely 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/ml, of butanol extract of the Streptomyces isolates was tested against the second instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The insecticidal potential of butanol extracts, in terms of larval mortality, was found to be dose dependent. Among the isolates, isolate 2 showed a marked insecticidal activity than isolate 1. At a concentration of 5 mg/ml, both the isolates caused 100% mortality of the larvae. At concentrations of 1 and 2.5 mg/ml, isolate 2 exhibited a stronger larvicidal activity than isolate 1. Conclusion: The insecticidal efficacy of the Streptomyces species might be due to the presence of active constituents in the extract. Isolation and characterization of active constituents from the butanol extract possessing insecticidal potential are to be investigated.
KS Vinayaka, D Swathi, TR Prashith Kekuda, K Bhagath, N Mallikarjun
Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2010 1(1):46-50
Background: Croton gibsonianus Nimm. Grah is a shrub belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae and grows in the under-story of the evergreen forests of the Western Ghats. The present study was performed to investigate the antibacterial, antifungal and free radical scavenging potentials of the methanol extract of C. gibsonianus leaves. Materials and Methods: The powdered leaf material was subjected to soxhlet extraction using methanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the methanolic extract were determined by the agar well diffusion method. The free radical scavenging activity was performed using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Results: The extract was found to cause marked inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Among fungi, Aspergillus niger was inhibited to a greater extent, followed by Chrysosporium indicum, Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum. The inhibition of test fungi was dose-dependent. The radical scavenging activity was found to be concentration dependent and the IC 50 value for the extract was found to be 43.78 μg/ml. A phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of saponins, tannins, glycosides and terpenoids. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of C. gibsonianus leaves could be used in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and damage caused by free radicals. The presence of various phytochemicals might be responsible for these activities of the extract. Further studies on isolation of constituents from the extract and their biological activities are under investigation.
Ana Paula Almeida, Tida Dethoup, Narong Singburaudom, Raquel Lima, Maria Helena Vasconcelos, Madalena Pinto, Anake Kijjoa
Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2010 1(1):25-29
Background: Marine natural products has captivated many researchers over the years and there is always a need for sources of diverse and pharmacologically active leads in the area of anticancer drugs. Materials and Methods: The ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Eurotium cristatum (ECE), isolated from the marine sponge Mycale sp., furnished 2-(2', 3-epoxy-1',3'-heptadienyl)-6-hydroxy-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) benzaldehyde (1), 1,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthracenedione (physcion,2), and the dioxopiperazine alkaloid echinulin (3). The structures of the compounds were established by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral analysis (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC). The ECE and its metabolites were evaluated for their growth inhibitory activity on the following three human tumor cell lines: breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), non-small lung cancer (NCI-H460), and melanoma (A375-C5). Results: The results showed that the ECE was active in all the three cell lines, with the values of GI50 = 44.3 ± 1.2, 45.5 ± 7.5, and 71.3 ± 2.1 μg/ml for MCF-7, NCI-H460, and A375-C5, respectively. Compound 1 also exhibited moderate growth inhibitory activity against all the three cell lines (GI50 = 58.3 ± 1.2, 46.0 ± 5.5, and 116.7 ± 7.2 μM for MCF-7, NCI-H460, and A375-C5, respectively), whereas compound 3 showed only weak inhibition against MCF-7 (GI50 = 109.7 ± 0.3 μM) and NCI-H460 (GI50 = 96.7 ± 1.5 μM) but was inactive against A375-C5 (GI50 >150 μM). On the contrary, compound 2 was inactive in all the three cell lines at the highest concentration tested (150 μM). Furthermore, ECE was investigated for its effect on the cell cycle in the NCI-H460 cells. Analysis of the cell cycle profile showed that ECE was able to cause a slight cell arrest in the G1 phase, with a corresponding decrease of cells in the S and G2/M phases. Conclusion: The secondary metabolites isolated [Compound 1] from the crude ethyl acetate extract of the culture of the marine fungus E. cristatum were found as the most potent compound regarding cell growth inhibition.
Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2010 1(1):1-1