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Pharmacognosy is a branch of pharmaceutical sciences which focuses on drugs of herbal and natural origin. Although pharmacognosy mostly deals with medicinal herbs, some animal products, marine materials and fungal and bacterial products are also discussed in pharmacognosy. There is a close relationship between pharmacognosy, botany and phytochemistry. Like many other fields of science, pharmacognosy has gone through variations in recent years; however, it is in close collaboration with many fields of science and is one of the bases of pharmacy.

Pharmacognostic studies include phytopharmaceutical investigations (raw materials for herbal products), biological evaluations of natural products, phytotherapy (healing effects of medicinal plants), phytochemistry (extraction, isolation and structure determination of natural compounds), plant cell culture, biochemical conversions and evaluating the biosynthesis pathways. (more…)