Anti-nephrotoxic activity of some medicinal plants from tribal rich pockets of Odisha

Satyaranjan Mishra, Saumya Ranjan Pani, Sabuj Sahoo

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):210-217

Background: Gentamicin, a strong cationic drug accumulated at biological membranes causes net increase in oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation leading to necrotic changes in renal tubles and consequently precipitates acute nephrotoxicity. Several phytoconstituents and plants extracts demonstrated significant anti-oxidant and cyto-protective activities. Vitex negundo Linn. (VN), Oroxylum indicum Vent. (OI) and Barringtonia acutangula Linn. (BA) are widely found throughout the Asian sub-continent including India, used extensively in different forms of Indian traditional medicine like Ayurveda and Unani. Objective: Nephroprotective activity of extracts of VN roots, OI whole plant and BA leaves were investigated against experimentally induced acute nephrotoxicity [Gentamicin (i.p; 80mg/kg for 7 days)] in Wistar rats as test animals. Materials and Methods: The rats were treated with Cystone (5 mL/kg; p.o) taken as positive control and methanol-dichloromethane (1:1) extracts of VN, OI and BA (200 mg/kg; p.o) as test drugs for 7 days. Following the said treatments, biochemical parameters of urine (volume, creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) and serum (urea, creatinine, albumin and total protein) were estimated. Renal anti-oxidant markers viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in renal tissue were assayed. Tissue sections of kidneys from different groups were made and histopathological features were observed. Result: The extracts of VN, OI and BA significantly attenuated the nephrotoxicity by elevation of body weight, CAT, GPx and SOD or lowering urine LDH and creatinine, serum urea; serum creatinine and LPO respectively. Histopathological score of VN, OI and BA treated groups were 1+, 2+ and 2+ respectively against 4+ of the toxic group. Conclusion: The findings suggested the significant nephroprotection of VN roots followed by OI whole plant and BA leaves.

Investigation of effects of time of measurement and modes of administration on cadmium accumulation in rat liver under some medicinal plants food supplemented diet

Chukwuemeka R. Nwokocha, Novie Younger-Coleman, Magdalene Nwokocha, Daniel U. Owu, Moses Iwuala

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):240-245

Context and Objectives: Cadmium (Cd) toxicity leads to cell and organ damage, we comparatively examined the protection ability of different medicinal plants on Cd liver accumulation following different treatment interventions and modes of administration. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed either 7% w/w Zingiber officinale, 7% w/w Allium Sativum, 10% w/w Lycopersicon esculentum, 5%, w/w Garcinia kola (all in rat chow), while Cd (200 ppm) was given in drinking water. Additives were administered together with (mode 1), a week after (mode 2) or a week before metal exposure (mode 3) for a period of six weeks. Cd liver was determined using AAS and compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: All additives significantly (P <0.5) reduced the accumulation of Cd in the liver. After adjusting for time and mode of administration, mean %protection for week 4 was significantly lower by 14.1% (P=0.02) from that for week 2 but the means did not differ with respect to additive used or mode of administration, no statistically significant interaction between modes of administration and either of additives used or time of administration in their respective relationships to percentage protection from Cd. Conclusion: Additives significantly reduced Cd accumulation through a reduction in absorption and enhancement of metal excretion.

Evaluation of antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of different solvent extracts of leaves of Citrullus colocynthis

Fazilatun Nessa, Saeed A. Khan

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):218-226

Background: Citrullus colocynthis is a folk medicinal plan of United Arab Emirates. Several studies on this plant reported and focused on the biological and toxicological profile of fruits pulp. The present study focused on the antioxidant potency of leaf extract of this plant. Aim: To evaluate the antioxidant and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activities of C. colocynthis by chemical method. Materials and Methods: Four different solvent extracts (methanol-CCM, methanol: water (1:1)-CCMW, chloroform-CCC and hexane-CCH) of leaves of C. colocynthis were investigated for their free radical scavenging activity using DPPH radical as a substrate, lipid peroxidation (LPO) inhibitory activity using a model system consisting of &#946;-carotene-linoleic acid, superoxide radical scavenging activity (enzymatically/nonenzymatically) and XO inhibitory activity. A dose response curve was plotted for determining SC 50 and IC 50 values for expressing the results of free radical scavenging activity and XO inhibitory activities respectively. Results: The high polyphenolic content of CCM and CCMW extract showed highest antioxidant activity irrespective the method used for this investigation. The overall results decreased in the order of: CCM > CCMW > CCC > CCH. CCH extract was inactive towards chemically generated superoxide radical and poor DPPH radical scavengers. The results of LPO inhibitory activities of leaves extract (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) also decreased in the order of: CCM > CCMW > CCC > CCH. Overall 1.0 mg/mL leaves extract showed highest antioxidant potency amongst the studied concentration. Conclusion: CCMW and CCM extract of C. colocynthis exhibited promising antioxidants and XO inhibitory activities.

Pharmacognostic specifications and quantification of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in Pentace burmanica stem bark

Thidarat Duangyod, Chanida Palanuvej, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):251-256

Background: According to Thai traditional medicine, Pentace burmanica Kurz. stem bark has been used as crude drug for treating diarrhea. However, the crude drug is also found susceptible to adulteration. Objectives: To develop specific standardization parameters of P. burmanica stem bark in Thailand and to determine the (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin contents of P. burmanica stem bark by HPLC analysis. Materials and Methods: P. burmanica stem barks from various sources throughout Thailand were investigated according to WHO guideline of the pharmacognostic specification. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed for (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin quantification. Results: Macroscopic evaluation was demonstrated as whole plant drawing. Microscopic evaluation of stem bark powdered drug showed fragment of fibers, resin masses, tannin masses, starch grain, calcium oxalate, and fragment of parenchyma. Physico-chemical parameters revealed that total ash, acid insoluble ash, loss on drying, and water content should be not more than 3.58, 0.50, 8.40, and 9.70% of dry weight respectively; while ethanol and water soluble extractive values should not be less than 21.90 and 19.06% of dry weight respectively. Both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were existed in P. burmanica ethanolic extract. Owing to the small amount of (+)-catechin, quantitation of its content was omitted. However, (-)-epicatechin contents was found as 59.74 &#177; 1.69&#956;g/mg of crude extract. Conclusion: The pharmacognostic investigations can be used to set the standard parameters of P. burmanica stem bark in Thailand. HPLC method can be applied to determine (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin content in plant materials.

Exploiting the phenomenal anti-ulcerogenic potential of Talinum portulacifolium ethanolic extract whole plant on Albino Rats: The therapeutic potential of Chinese Herb-mǎ chǐ xiàn kē (Portulacaceae)

Rohit Gundamaraju, Kotla Maheedhar, Kim Kah Hwi

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):227-233

Background: Ulcerations have been effecting humans and causing major damage in the gastro intestinal tract. A need for development of a flawless anti-ulcer medication was always in the agenda. Thus, the need to conduct a study was provoked. Objectives: The major objective of the present study is to screen the antiulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of Talinum portulacifolium (Forsk) plant. Materials and Methods: The antiulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of T.Z portulacifolium was performed on albino rats. Gastric ulcers were induced by ethanol, pylorus ligated aspirin and histamine induced ulcer models. Omeprazole was used as a standard drug for comparison. Results: Treatment with the T. portulacifolium plant extract significantly protected the ulceration induced by the three models. The gastric volume, pH of gastric juice, total acidity, free acidity and ulcer index were the parameters estimated and did show significant results. 800 mg/kg extracts of T. portulacifolium did show high significant results as that of standard drug. Percentage protection of 800 mg/kg was 79.9% and the standard drug-treated group did show 84%. So was with total acidity (38.1 + 1.45) and free acidity (16.5 + 0.76) Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of T. portulacifolium plant was found to possess a significant antiulcer activity.

Anti-allergic activity of the Morinda citrifolia extract and its constituents

Kazuya Murata, Yumi Abe, Kaito Shinohara, Megumi Futamura-Masuda, Akemi Uwaya, Fumiyuki Isami, Hideaki Matsuda

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):260-265

Background: Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae), commonly known as noni is distributed throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Anti-allergic effects of noni have not been reported despite the clinical usage as an anti-allergic agent. Materials and Methods: To investigate the anti-allergic effects of the 50% ethanolic extract of M. citrifolia fruits and leaves (MCF-ext and MCL-ext), dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced triphasic cutaneous reaction and picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) tests were performed. Results: In DNFB-induced triphasic cutaneous reaction, oral administration of MCF-ext and MCL-ext exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of cutaneous reaction at 1 h (immediate phase response) after the DNFB challenge. MCF-ext also inhibited ear swelling at 24 h (late phase response) and 8 days (very late phase response) after the DNFB challenge. The effect of MCL-ext on the immediate phase response was attributed to the anti-degranulation from RBL-2H3 cells, while MCF-ext had no significant effect on degranulation. The active components of anti-degranulation activity in MCL-ext were determined to be ursolic acid, rutin and kaempferol-3-O-&#945;-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1&#8594;6)-&#946;-D-glucopyranoside. In the PC-CD test, both MCF-ext and MCL-ext showed an anti-swelling effect but the potency of MCF-ext was stronger than MCL-ext. Conclusion: These data suggest that noni fruits and leaves can be a daily consumable material for the prevention of allergic symptoms.

The influence of pharmaceutical vermipreparations on the test-reaction of organisms of the different levels of the organization

Daevard I. Stom, Viktor Alexandrovich Bybin, Alla E. Balayan, Michael N. Saksonov, Valentina P. Salovarova

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):195-198

The efficiency of vermipreparations has been investigated with the help of the test-reactions on various invertebrate organisms, plants and microorganisms. The principal possibility of the use of biotest on the basis of yeast, fungi, algae, water and ground-based plants, sponges, protozoan, small crustaceans, oligochaetes for an estimation of biological activity of vermipreparations and in further and for definition of quality, selection of dose of medicinal complex preparations is shown.

Constituents of Artemisia indica Willd. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A source of davanone

S. Zafar Haider, Manindra Mohan, Harish Chandra Andola

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):257-259

Background: The genus Artemisia is important due to its medicinal properties as well as vital aroma compounds of commercial value. Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the potential of the essential oil of Artemisia indica wildly growing in Uttarakhand. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of Artemisia indica Willd. (Asteraceae), collected from wild growing habitat of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand (north of India) at full flowering stage were hydro-distilled and gave pale yellow oil with the yield of 0.8% (v/w). The obtained essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS and identified 32 components, amounting 95.42% of the oil. Results: Among detected compounds, the principal component was found to be davanone (30.80%), followed by &#946;-pinene (15.30%) and germacrene-D (5.82%). Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on A. indica from Himalayan region of India, which detected davanone as major component. The species, collected from a specific location, can be explored for isolation of davanone for its industrial utilization and as alternate source of Artemisia pallens, which have already established commercial value.

Ameliorative effect of Matricaria chamomilla.L on paraquat: Induced oxidative damage in lung rats

Akram Ranjbar, Fariba Mohsenzadeh, Abdolkarim Chehregani, Farzad Khajavi, Seyed-Mostafa Hossini Zijoud, Hassan Ghasemi

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):199-203

Background: Herbal medicines have been long used for antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcholic extract Matricaria chamomilla. L (M. chamomilla) against Paraquat (PQ) induced pulmonary injury in association with its antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: Effective doses of PQ (5 mg/kg/day) and M. chamomilla (50 mg/kg/day) were administered alone or in combination for 7 days. At the end of the experiment, lung tissue of the animals was separated. The activity of enzymatic scavengers such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant power (TAP) were measured. Results: In these samples, the LPO, SOD, and GPx were higher in the PQ group as compared with controls. M. chamomilla extract ameliorated LPO, SOD, GPx and increased TAP in plasma and lung tissue of PQ induced changes. Co administration of PQ with M. chamomilla improved LPO and SOD, and GPx. Conclusion: M. chamomilla as natural antioxidant may be considered beneficial for the protection oxidative lung injury in PQ poisoning.

Effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats

Ajitha Sharma, Manjunath Shetty, Amrita Parida, Shalini Adiga, Shobha Kamath, Sowjanya

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):246-250

Background: The effects and benefits of Acacia auriculiformis on health are not well established. This study was planned to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats. Materials and Methods: Learning and memory were evaluated using passive avoidance paradigm and rewarded alternation test (T-maze) after the oral administration of two doses (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis with rivastigmine as positive control. Forty eight rats were divided into 4 groups in each study model. Estimation of brain cholinesterase activity was done to substantiate the results of the above mentioned tests. Data was analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test using GraphPad InStat software, version 3.06. Results: The extract produced a dose-dependent improvement in the memory score namely the step through latency in passive avoidance model (P < 0.001) and the percentage of correct responses in rewarded alternation test (P < 0.05). Dose-dependent inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity (P < 0.001) was also noted. Conclusion: The acetylcholinesterase inhibiting property of Acacia auriculiformis contributes to its memory enhancing potential. Further large scale studies are required to elucidate its benefits on cognitive function. This may offer a promising new option for the treatment of dementia and other cognitive deficits.

Solicitation of HPLC and HPTLC Techniques for Determination of Rutin from Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites

Gaurav Mahesh Doshi, Sandeep Prabhakar Zine, Pratip Kashinath Chaskar, Hemant Devidas Une

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):234-239

Background: Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites is an important traditional plant in India. Rutin, an active constituent has been reported to possess good amount of pharmacological as well as therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to find out by analytical techniques how much percentage of rutin is present in the plant leaves' ethanolic extract by analytical techniques. Materials and Methods: Shade dried leaves of Polyalthia longifolia were subjected to cold ethanolic extraction followed by monitoring the isolated rutin high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) after carrying out preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Extraction yield was found to be 13.94% w/w. Phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, diterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and phenolic compounds and mucilage. From the Rf value, the ethanolic extract was found to be having constituent identical to rutin. By HPTLC and HPLC the amount of rutin was found to be 11.60% w/w and 4.03% w/v, respectively. Conclusion: The active constituent isolated was found to be equal to rutin.

Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Saroj Kumar Sahoo, Sarada Prasad Sarangi, Rakesh Sagar, Mohan Lal Kori

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):204-209

Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods : The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim.

Screening of anticancer activity from agarwood essential oil

Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun Hashim, Abbas Phirdaous, Amid Azura

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):191-194

Background: Agarwood is a priceless non-timber forest product from Aquilaria species belonging to the Thymelaeaceae family. As a result of a defence mechanism to fend off pathogens, Aquilaria species develop agarwood or resin which can be used for incense, perfumery, and traditional medicines. Evidences from ethnopharmacological practices showed that Aquilaria spp. have been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic practice and Chinese medicine to treat various diseases particularly the inflammatory-associated diseases. There have been no reports on traditional use of agarwood towards cancer treatment. However, this is most probably due to the fact that cancer nomenclature is used in modern medicine to describe the diseases associated with unregulated cell growth in which inflammation and body pain are involved. Objective: The aim of this current study was therefore to investigate the potential anticancer properties of agarwood essential oil obtained from distillation of agarwood (resin) towards MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The essential oil was subjected to screening assays namely cell viability, cell attachment and sulforhodamine B (SRB)-based cytotoxicity assay to determine the IC 50 value. Results: The agarwood essential oil caused reduction of the cell number in both the cell viability and attachment assay suggesting a cumulative effect of the cell killing, inhibition of the cell attachment and or causing cells to detach. The agarwood essential oil showed IC 50 value of 900 &#956;g/ml towards the cancer cells. Conclusion: The agarwood essential oil exhibited anticancer activity which supports the traditional use against the inflammatory-associated diseases. This warrants further investigation towards the development of alternative remedy towards cancer.

Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis

Eric W.C Chan, Eu Ying Soh, Pei Pei Tie, Yon Peng Law

Pharmacognosy Research 2011 3(4):266-272

Background: The role of non-polymeric phenolic (NP) and polymeric tannin (PT) constituents in the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of six brands of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis were investigated. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic content (TPC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Minimum inhibitory dose (MID) against Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. Teas were extracted with hot water successively three times for one hour each time. The extracts were fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain the NP and PT constituents. Results: Extraction yields ranged from 12 to 23%. Yields of NP fractions (70&#8722;81%) were much higher than those of PT fractions (1&#8722;11%), suggesting that the former are the major tea components. Ranking of antioxidant properties of extracts was green tea>black tea>herbal tea. For all six teas, antioxidant properties of PT fractions were significantly higher than extracts and NP fractions. Extracts and fractions of all six teas showed no activity against the three Gram-negative bacteria. Green teas inhibited all three Gram-positive bacteria with S. aureus being the least susceptible. Black and herbal teas inhibited the growth of M. luteus and B. cereus, but not S. aureus. The most potent were the PT fractions of Boh Cameron Highlands and Ho Yan Hor with MID of 0.01 and 0.03 mg/disc against M. luteus. Conclusion: Results suggested that NP constituents are major contributors to the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of teas of C. sinensis. Although PT constituents have stronger antioxidant and antibacterial properties, they constitute only a minor component of the teas.

Indigenous anti-ulcer activity of Musa sapientum on peptic ulcer

P Prabha, Thirunethiran Karpagam, B Varalakshmi, A Sohna Chandra Packiavathy

Pharmacognosy Research 2011 3(4):232-238

Background: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD), encompassing gastric and duodenal ulcers is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder. The pathophysiology of PUD involves an imbalance between offensive factors like acid, pepsin and defensive factors like nitric oxide and growth factors. The clinical evaluation of antiulcer drugs showed tolerance, incidence of relapses and side-effects that make their efficacy arguable. An indigenous drug like Musa sapientum possessing fewer side-effects is the major thrust area of present day research, aiming at a better and safer approach for the management of PUD. Material and Methods: The unripe plantain bananas (Musa sapientum) were shade-dried, powdered and used for phytochemical analysis and as antiulcer drug. In our present study Group I rats served as control and were treated with saline, Group II was indomethacin-induced ulcerated rats, Group III received aqueous extract of Musa sapientum along with indomethacin and Group IV received esomeprazole along with indomethacin for 21 days. The anti-ulcerogenic activity was investigated by performing hematological, mucosal, antioxidant profile in comparison with the standard drug esomeprazole. Results: Our findings from High – Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that Musa sapientum has an active compound a monomeric flavonoid (leucocyanidin) with anti-ulcerogenic activity. Results were expressed as mean &#177; SD. All our results are in congruous with the results of standard drug esomeprazole. Conclusion: It could be clearly concluded that administration of the aqueous extract of Musa sapientum at the dose used in this study tends to ameliorate ulcers. Its use in indigenous medicine should be scientifically scrutinized with further research.

Screening of radical scavenging activity and polyphenol content of Bulgarian plant species

Milena Nikolova

Pharmacognosy Research 2011 3(4):256-259

Background: Discovery of new plant species with antioxidant properties is a priority of many research teams. Most of the species included in this study are unstudied for antioxidant properties, but they are taxonomically related to reference plants with well-documented antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: Free radical scavenging activity of plant extracts was evaluated using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. An aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for flavonoid determination. The amount of phenolic compounds in the extracts was estimated by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results: As a result of screening, it was found that the significant antioxidant properties possess several unstudied until now plant species (Veronica bellidioides L., V. kellereri Deg. et Urm, V. vindobonensis (M. Fisher) M. Fisher,
V. beccabunga L., V. rhodopaea L., V. austriaca (Velen.) Degen., Clinopodium vulgare L., Stachys recta L., Clematis vitalba L., and Xeranthemum annum L.). The antioxidant potential of the new species is comparable to that of reference medicinal plants. Conclusions: The existing data presented here provide new information for antioxidant potential of plant species that have not been traditionally used as medicinal plants.

Cardioprotective effects of gallic acid in diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction in rats

Snehal S Patel, Ramesh K Goyal

Pharmacognosy Research 2011 3(4):239-245

Background: Normalization of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress is an important objective in preventing diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. Objective: This study was undertaken to examine the effects of gallic acid in myocardial dysfunctions associated with type-1 diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg i.v.). Gallic acid was administered daily at three different doses (100, 50, and 25 mg/kg p.o.) for 8 weeks at the end of which blood samples were collected and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. Results: Injection of STZ produced significant loss of body weight (BW), polyphagia, polydypsia, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, bradycardia, and myocardial functional alterations. Treatment with gallic acid significantly lowered fasting glucose, the AUC glucose level in a dose-dependent manner; however, the insulin level was not increased significantly at same the dose and prevented loss of BW, polyphagia, and polydypsia in diabetic rats. It also prevented STZ-induced hyperlipidemia, hypertension, bradycardia, structural alterations in cardiac tissue such as increase in force of contraction, left ventricular weight to body weight ratio, collagen content, protein content, serum lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine kinase levels in a dose-dependent manner. Further, treatment also produced reduction in lipid peroxidation and increase in antioxidant parameters in heart of diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that gallic acid to be beneficial for the treatment of myocardial damage associated with type-1 diabetes.

Assessment of antioxidant potentials of free and bound phenolics of Hemidesmus indicus (L) R.Br against oxidative damage

Smitha Jayaram, Shylaja M Dharmesh

Pharmacognosy Research 2011 3(4):225-231

Background: Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is a twining shrub commonly found in India, which was known to have wide pharmacological actions. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzoic acid (HMBA) and a number of pregnane glycosides were believed to be responsible for its various bioactivities. Until now, there are no reports regarding the antioxidant properties of phenolics from H. indicus. Objective: To establish the role of phenolics in the properties of H.indicus. Materials and Methods: Hemidesmus free phenolic fraction (HDFP) and Hemidesmus bound phenolic fraction (HDBP) have been isolated from H. indicus, and the antioxidant activity was evaluated for inhibition of lipid peroxidation, DNA protection, free radical scavenging (FRS), reducing power and cytoprotective activities. Results: HDFP and HDBP exhibited potent inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC 50 – 19.5 &#177;0.5 and 21.7 &#177;0.5 &#956;g gallic acid equivalent – GAE/mL), FRS (IC 50 – 7 &#177; 0.2 and 8.6 &#177; 0.2 &#956;gGAE/mL), reducing power (110.3 &#177; 2 and 33.5 &#177; 1 U/g) and red blood cell protection (14.8 &#177; 0.4 and 14.5 &#177; 0.5 mg GAE/mL). HDFP is constituted by gallic (18%), caffeic (17%), ferulic acids (16%) and HDBP by syringic acid (35%) as major phenolic acids. Besides, both HDFP and HDBP contained significant levels of HMBA; in HDFP (10%) and HDBP (57%), respectively. Results indicated a 34-and 27-folds better contribution to the antioxidant activity by HDFP and HDBP, respectively, than that of HMBA. Conclusion: Potent antioxidant activities of phenolics may be one of the mechanisms by which H.indicus is effective against several health disorders as encountered in traditional medicines.

Acetylcholine and memory-enhancing activity of Ficus racemosa bark

Faiyaz Ahmed, JN Narendra Sharath Chandra, S Manjunath

Pharmacognosy Research 2011 3(4):246-249

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting in dementia and enhancement of acetylcholine (Ach) levels in brain using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors is one of the most important approaches for the treatment of AD. Methods: In this study, aqueous extract of Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) bark having anti-infl ammatory, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activity was evaluated for its ability to enhance Ach levels, and to ascertain its antidementia activity in rats. This work was carried out under the assumption that the F. racemosa extract may show combination of actions which could be beneficial in the treatment of AD, such as neuroprotection, attributed to antioxidant and anti-infl ammatory property and may elevate levels of Ach like Ficus hispida extract reported earlier. Results: Administration of the extract at two levels viz., 250 and 500 mg/kg signifi cantly raised (P &#8804; 0.05) Ach levels in hippocampi of rats compared to control. The percentage enhancement in Ach levels was found to be 22% and 38%, respectively. Further, the extract at both dosage levels elicited signifi cant reduction (P &#8804; 0.05) in transfer latency on elevated plus-maze, which was used as an exteroceptive behavioral model to evaluate memory in rats. Conclusion: It is inferred that it would be worthwhile to explore the potential of F. racemosa in the management of Alzheimer disease.

Effects of the oral administration of nonpolar extract from Ardisia squamulosa Presl (Myrsinaceae) leaves on spermatogenesis in rats

Dennis D Raga, Glorina N Pocsidio, Annabelle A Herrera

Pharmacognosy Research 2011 3(4):260-265

Background: Several Ardisia species have been found to possess numerous bioactivities but their reproductive toxicity has been poorly explored. In the present study, the effects of the leaf hexane extract of Philippine indigenous Ardisia squamulosa on epididymal sperm count, %viability and %aberration of sperms and weights of seminal vesicle, cauda epididymis, and testes in addition to the weights of liver, kidney, and body were evaluated. Methods: The extracts at daily dose levels of 1, 10, and 100 mg/Kg BW in 10% polysorbate-80 in corn oil were administered by gavage for 8 successive days to 8-10 weeks old male SD rats and sacrificed after 9 days. Daily body weights and final organ weights were measured. Sperm from the cauda epididymis was extracted and measured according standard sperm parameters (sperm count, morphology, viability and membrane integrity). Results: Significant findings were the decline of left epididymal sperm count to testis weight ratio and increase in %sperm morphological aberration from both cauda epididymis obtained with the 10 mg/Kg BW dose. Conclusion: The hexane extract from Ardisia squamulosa had significant effect on sperm count but with negligible effect on sperm morphology and viability.

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