Evaluation of the effect of the ethanolic extract of Delonix elata on acute inflammation in rats

K Manimekalai, Kartik J Salwe, Harsha M Shetty

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2011 2(3):149-153

Background: The ethanolic extract of Delonix elata was studied for its effect on the acute inflammation and comparison of its ulcerogenic potential with ibuprofen. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of the leaves of D. elata was obtained using the Soxhlet apparatus. Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30 g and Wistar albino rats weighing 120-130 g of either sex were used in the study. The antinociceptive property of the plant extract was screened by acetic acid-induced writhing in mice while the anti-inflammatory property was studied using the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The gastric irritant action was tested by administering the drug orally and screening the gastric mucosa macroscopically and microscopically after acute administration of the D. elata extract in rats. The percent inhibition of the writhing response and paw edema was noted. The stomach were excised and opened along the greater curvature. The severity of ulcers was scored from 0 to 5 depending on the size and severity of ulcer. Results: The plant extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in writhing with 55.56% and 54.76% of inhibition, respectively, and also showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in the volume of paw edema with approximately 55.78% and 66.31% of inhibition, respectively. The histological section after the acute administration of ibuprofen indicated superficial erosion. In contrast, after acute treatment of D. elata, it was found that the surface epithelium was intact. Conclusion: The present results indicate that D. elata may be considered safer than the conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with respect to gastric irritation potential.

Evaluation of hair growth promoting activity of Musa paradisiaca unripe fruit extract

Anil Sidram Savali, Somnath Devidas Bhinge, Hariprasanna R Chitapurkar

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2011 2(3):120-124

For the evaluation of the hair growth promoting activity of Musa paradisiaca unripe fruit extract, the study was aimed to investigate the hair growth promoting activity of M. paradisiaca unripe fruit extract. Objective: We examined the effect of M. paradisiaca unripe fruit extract for the hair growth promoting activity, which has been traditionally used for treating hair loss. Materials and Methods: The mice were divided into four groups the extract and minoxidil were applied over the shaved skin surface on to the backs of mice and monitored for 30 days. Results: The extract of M. paradisiaca unripe fruit when tested for the hair growth activity was assed by studying hair length and microscopic study of follicles in vehicle control, 2% minoxidil treated and extract treated animals. Conclusion: The findings suggest that extract of M. paradisiaca unripe fruit has potential as a hair growth promoter.

Laxative potential of the ethanolic leaf extract of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. in Wistar rats with loperamide-induced constipation

A.O.T Ashafa, TO Sunmonu, AA Abass, AA Ogbe

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2011 2(3):158-162

Background: Constipation is a highly prevalent and often chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder affecting humans irrespective of race and color exposing victims to colorectal cancer. The present study evaluated the efficacy of the ethanolic leaf extract of Aloe vera against loperamide-induced constipation in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were constipation induced by the oral administration of loperamide (3 mg/kg body weight) while the control animals received normal saline. Constipated rats were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight/day of the ethanolic leaf extract for 7 days during which the feeding characteristics, body weight, fecal properties, and gastrointestinal transit ratio were monitored. Results: Treatment of constipated rats with the extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight for 7 days improved intestinal motility, increased fecal volume, and normalized body weight in the constipated rats. These are indications of the laxative property of the herb with the 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract showing the best efficacy. Conclusion: The effect of the extract compares favorably well with Gaviscon, a standard laxative drug. These findings have therefore lent scientific support to the use of the herb as a laxative agent in Nigerian folkloric medicine.

Effect of oral administration of ethanolic root extract of Tinospora cordifolia on aflatoxin B 1 -induced toxicity in swiss albino mice

Veena Sharma, Rekha Gupta, Shatruhan Sharma

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2011 2(3):125-132

Background: Aflatoxins are potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic agents. This hepatotoxicity is thought to be mediated by their ability to generate reactive oxygen species and cause peroxidative damage. Considering the antioxidant properties of Tinospora cordifolia, this study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in terms of altered biochemical, hematological, serological and histopathological parameters. Methods: Sixty male swiss albino mice were taken for post exposure therapy. Results: Aflatoxin exposure elicited a significant escalation in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and depletion in reduced glutathione, protein, ascorbic acid and antioxidant enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities. Chronic aflatoxin ingestion showed a significant decline in total erythrocyte count, lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit values while total leukocyte count, platelet count and neutrophil count significantly increased in the aflatoxin-treated group. The activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate augmented significantly in the serum of aflatoxin-exposed mice suggesting hepatic damage. Aflatoxin administration decreased the content of high density lipoprotein while increased the content of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein significantly. Pathological examination of the liver tissue also supported the biochemical findings. However, post-exposure administration of Tinospora cordifolia root extract to the aflatoxin-treated group attenuated the deranged parameters to some extent. Conclusion: This study indicated that Tinospora cordifolia can be a protective regimen for aflatoxin toxicity.

Comparative toxicity assessment of three Tephrosia species on Artemia salina and animal cell lines

Sandhya Subhadra, Venkata Ramana Kanacharalapalli, Vinod Kombath Ravindran, Sai Kumar Parre, Sunitha Chintala, Rajeswar Thatipally

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2011 2(3):143-148

Background: Tephrosia calophylla, Tephrosia maxima and Tephrosia purpurea are generally used in the treatment of various ailments including cancer by the folklore of Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: The powdered root of three plants were separately extracted with chloroform and then subjected to preliminary chemical screening. The total phenolic and flavonoid content were estimated by using gallic acid and quercetin as standard. Brine shrimp hatchability and lethality tests were done by hatching the cysts of Artemia salina in brine solution. As these parameters can be associated to tumor cells, the investigation was extrapolated to animal cell lines, Daltons Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) and Erlisch Ascites Carcinoma (EAC). Trypan blue exclusion method was adopted for this screening. In all experiments dose selected were between the ranges of 10 and 200 &#956;g/mL. Results: Preliminary chemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids for T. calophylla and T. maxima; proteins, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids for T. purpurea. The total phenolic and flavonoid content was found to be highest in the case of T. calophylla followed by T. maxima and then by T. purpurea. It was observed that in all the cytotoxicity tests performed T. calophylla was proved to be most potent followed by T. maxima and then by T. purpurea. The results thus obtained were found to correlate with the values obtained for total phenolic and flavonoid content. Conclusion: The present investigation revealed that all three species of Tephrosia to be potent cytotoxic agents. Increasing order of cytotoxicity can be denoted as T.purpurea < T.maxima < T.calophylla. Further studies have to be performed to identify the chemical entity responsible for efficient cytotoxicity which may help in the development of suitable lead compounds.

Flavonoids inhibited NADPH consumption and ecdysis processes in Oncopeltus fasciatus

Juliana Oliveira Abreu Narciso, Marco Antonio Soares de Souza, Mario Geraldo de Carvalho, Mário Sergio da Rocha Gomes, Marcelo Genestra, Marise Maleck de Oliveira Cabral

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2011 2(3):133-137

Background: Piptadenia rigida is a source of flavonoids such as isoliquiritigenin ( 1 ), 7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone ( 2 ) and 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone ( 3 ). Flavonoids influence on the feeding behavior of insects besides the inhibition of the insect larvae growth. Nitric oxide (NO) seems to be conserved in invertebrate innate immunity and the NO synthase (NOS) activity has been implicated in insect immunity. Therefore, the NOS expression can be evaluated to determine the inhibition of NADPH consumption. Material and Methods: three natural flavonoids, isolated from P. rigida whose structures were determined by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectral data analysis, were evaluated on the Oncopeltus fasciatus control by molting processes and NADPH consumption in the insect intestine following mortality. Results: The flavonoids treatment on O. fasciatus showed 50% mortality and 50% ecdysis ( 1 ), 30% mortality and 43% ecdysis ( 2 ), and topical treatment with th 3 resulted in 43% ecdysis but did not show high toxicity at 100&#956;g/nymph. Intestine homogenates obtained from insects treated with flavonoids that were incubated with NADPH substrate showed percentage inhibitions of 72%, 78% and 80%, for the treatments 3, 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: The flavanone ( 3 ) was the most effective and least toxic to the insect, followed by 2 and then 1 .

HPLC analysis of protoberberine alkaloids in Phellodendron lavallei D. introduced to Western Georgia

Mariam Meskheli, Valentina Vachnadze, Dali Berashvili, Aliosha Bakuridze

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2011 2(3):154-157

Background : Phellodendron lavallei D. is one of the oldest medicinal plants and is of current interest as a natural medicine. The aim of our study was to determine the features and amount of the content of berberine, palmatine, jatrorrhizine, and magnoflorine in the overall preparation enriched by pharmacologically active alkaloids, obtained from the bark of P. lavallei, using HPLC. Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation was carried out using a Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 &#215; 4.6 mm, 5 &#956;m; Waters), mobile phase MeOH 20 mL/mol and KH 2 PO 48:52 (pH 2.6). The UV detection was performed at 235 nm. Results: A good linear behavior over the investigated concentration range was observed with the value r2 > 0.9999. The amount of palmatine, jatrorrhizine, magnoflorine, and berberine in the extract was determined and the following results were achieved: berberine 7.6%, palmatine 0.77%, jatrorrhizine 0.9%, and magnoflorine 57%. Conclusion: Study results show that this method of HPLC might be used to determine alkaloids such as berberine, palmatine, jatrorrhizine, and magnoflorine in P. lavallei D .

Anticancer, cytotoxic potential of Moringa oleifera extracts on HeLa cell line

Shruti Nair, KN Varalakshmi

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2011 2(3):138-142

Background: The objective of the study was to analyze the anticancer property of Moringa oleifera on HeLa cells and also to analyze its safety on human peripheral lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: Using ethnomedical data approach, the Indian medicinal plant (M. oleifera) that is used in traditional medicine for cancer and non-cancerous diseases was collected. The crude extracts were prepared by alcoholic and aqueous extraction methods using standard protocols. The antiproliferative effects of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts were evaluated in vitro by employing MTT assay, viability test by trypan blue dye exclusion and apoptosis of the cancer cells were confirmed by DNA fragmentation analysis, ethidium bromide- acridine orange (EB/AO) staining. Results: The aqueous extract of M. oleifera showed good cytotoxicity which was concentration dependent. It was contradictory incase of methanolic and hexane extracts, the cell viability was found to increase as the concentration of extract increased. It states that not only the concentration of extract is having an effect on cell viability, even the methods and solvents of extraction are important in exerting their effects on cell lines. At the same time, the extracts showed proliferative effects on the normal human lymphocytes. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of M. oleifera exhibited cytotoxic effects on Hela cells and least cytotoxicity on lymphocytes. For plants that are used as anticancer herbal drugs, our results indicated a correlation between the reported use of these plants and their cytotoxic activity on cancer cells.

Development of the HPLC method to determine the metabolites of isomajdine isolated from Vinca herbacea Waldst. et Kit. growing in Georgia

Natia Gagua, C Aubert, Valentina Vachnadze, Aliosha Bakuridze

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2011 2(3):163-165

Background: It was decided to develop a reliable HPLC method coupled with ultraviolet detection for simultaneous determination of isomajdine and its metabolites in in vitro experiment. Methods: A liquid liquid extraction was used to extract the compounds from plasma. The analysis was carried out on a ZorbaxC18 column (250mmx4.6mm, 5&#956;m). The mobile phase consisted of water (A) and acetonitril (B) (16:84, V/V) used in gradient mode: 16 (B) for 10 min, 71 (B) for 55 minute, 16 (B) 62 minutes, pumped at 1ml/min. Results: 4 metabolites have been detected and separeted. tha linearity was invetigated. Conclusion: The calibration curves showed good linearity with correlation coefficient greater that 0.996 for the analytes in the investigated range.So the HPLC method is precise, accurate and simple.

Antibacterial, antifungal and free radical scavenging activity of Croton gibsonianus Nimm. Grah. (Euphorbiaceae)

KS Vinayaka, D Swathi, TR Prashith Kekuda, K Bhagath, N Mallikarjun

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2010 1(1):46-50

Background: Croton gibsonianus Nimm. Grah is a shrub belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae and grows in the under-story of the evergreen forests of the Western Ghats. The present study was performed to investigate the antibacterial, antifungal and free radical scavenging potentials of the methanol extract of C. gibsonianus leaves. Materials and Methods: The powdered leaf material was subjected to soxhlet extraction using methanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the methanolic extract were determined by the agar well diffusion method. The free radical scavenging activity was performed using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Results: The extract was found to cause marked inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Among fungi, Aspergillus niger was inhibited to a greater extent, followed by Chrysosporium indicum, Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum. The inhibition of test fungi was dose-dependent. The radical scavenging activity was found to be concentration dependent and the IC 50 value for the extract was found to be 43.78 μg/ml. A phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of saponins, tannins, glycosides and terpenoids. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of C. gibsonianus leaves could be used in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and damage caused by free radicals. The presence of various phytochemicals might be responsible for these activities of the extract. Further studies on isolation of constituents from the extract and their biological activities are under investigation.

Potent insecticidal activity of two Streptomyces species isolated from the soils of the western ghats of Agumbe, Karnataka

TR Prashith Kekuda, KS Shobha, R Onkarappa

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2010 1(1):30-32

Background: The Western ghats, the range of hills running along India's west coast, are well known for their rich and unique assemblage of flora and fauna. The present study was performed to evaluate the insecticidal potential of Actinomycetes isolated from the soils of the Western ghats of Agumbe, Karnataka. Methods: For isolation, the serially diluted soil sample was plated on Starch casein agar and incubated aerobically. The actinomycete isolates were identified by various parameters such as colony morphology, spore arrangement, staining, and biochemical reactions. The isolates were grown in Starch casein broth for seven days, the culture broth was extracted with butanol solvent and concentrated to get crude extract. Insecticidal activity of different concentrations of butanol extract of the isolates was determined against the second instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The larvicidal effect, in terms of mortality of larvae, of the extracts was determined by counting the number of dead larvae after 24 hours. Results: Two actinomycete isolates were recovered from the soil sample and were identified as the species of Streptomyces on the basis of phenotypic, microscopic, biochemical, and staining characteristics. The colonies of the Streptomyces isolate 1 were creamish-white with yellow pigmentation and the spore arrangement was straight, whereas colonies of the Streptomyces isolate 2 were light grey with dark green pigmentation. The spore arrangement in isolate 2 was of the open loop type. Both the isolates were Gram-positive, non-acid fast, and caused hydrolysis of starch and casein. The insecticidal activity of different concentrations, namely 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/ml, of butanol extract of the Streptomyces isolates was tested against the second instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The insecticidal potential of butanol extracts, in terms of larval mortality, was found to be dose dependent. Among the isolates, isolate 2 showed a marked insecticidal activity than isolate 1. At a concentration of 5 mg/ml, both the isolates caused 100% mortality of the larvae. At concentrations of 1 and 2.5 mg/ml, isolate 2 exhibited a stronger larvicidal activity than isolate 1. Conclusion: The insecticidal efficacy of the Streptomyces species might be due to the presence of active constituents in the extract. Isolation and characterization of active constituents from the butanol extract possessing insecticidal potential are to be investigated.

Toxicological effects of the aqueous stem bark extract of Strychnos henningsii Gilg in Wistar rats

SO Oyedemi, G Bradley, AJ Afolayan

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2010 1(1):33-39

Background: Strychnos henningsii Gilg is widely used in South African traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. However, no safety studies have been conducted on its toxicological profile. Materials and Methods: The effect of the oral administration of the aqueous bark extract of this plant at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg was investigated on the hematological and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats for 28 days. Results: Treatment with the plant extract did not significantly (P > 0.05) alter the levels of hemoglobin, red blood cell, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, large unstained cell and organs body weight ratio of the kidneys, livers, lungs and hearts. Also, the levels of eosinophils, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, glucose, sodium as well as calcium were not significantly different from the control. Meanwhile, the concentrations of platelets, monocytes, basophils and white blood cells significantly decreased while those of the mean corpuscular hemoglobin, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases were increased. Moreover, the levels of conjugated bilirubin and mean corpuscular volume were effectively increased at specific doses. The levels of cholesterol and triglycerides as well as chlorine were remarkably decreased at the highest dose. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest that sub-acute administration of S. henningsii extract may not be completely safe as oral remedy due to the impairment observed in the normal functioning of white blood cells.

Coffea arabica: A wonder gift to medical science

Shradha Bisht, SS Sisodia

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2010 1(1):58-65

In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has collected to show the immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. More than 13,000 plants have been studied in recent years. Coffee is the most frequently consumed functional food around the globe. The average consumption per capita in the United States is approximately 4.4 kg annually at a cost of $164.71 per individual. These statistics provide compelling motivation to investigate the consequences of such large-scale consumption of this beverage. Coffee also has a rich medical history. The therapeutic benefits of coffee are now supported by a rapidly growing and significant level of scientific validation. Coffee is a medium-sized tree of the Rubiacea family, living up to 25 years, and grows to a height of 6-15 m. Traditionally, different parts of the coffee plants are used for influenza, anemia, edema, asthenia and rage, hepatitis and liver troubles, externally for nervous shock, as a stimulant for sleepiness and drunkenness, as an antitussive in flu and lung ailment, as a cardiotonic and a neurotonic and for asthmas. The present review on Coffea arabica aims to compile data generated through the research activity using modern scientific approaches and innovative scientific tools in recent years and potential clinical applications of the functional food that is humbly known as the coffee bean. The data in the present review have been organized in various sections according to pharmacological activities. One section in the present review deserves special mention, i.e. on diabetes, as the World Health Organization stated diabetes as a basic health indicator. The number of patients with this ailment continues to increase at the rate of about 1 million new patients per year.

Protective effects of roasted coffee drink on liver function of cirrhotic rats

Youssef A.H. Neto, Bruno A Rocha, Rodrigo N Pedroso, Marthus M.F. Neto, Fernanda B.A. Paula, Stella M.S. Duarte

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2010 1(1):19-24

The role of oxidative stress as a major cause of tissue injury has been suggested and it has been demonstrated that changes in the oxidant and antioxidant mechanisms contribute largely to hepatic necrosis in these situations. However, the increased intake of foods rich in antioxidants could help minimize this damage. The aim of this present work was to evaluate the effect of coffee beverage on lipid peroxidation and markers of liver function in rats with cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride. Our results demonstrated that CCl 4 is effective in the induction of liver cirrhosis and the compounds presents in coffee drink are able to decrease the hepatic lipid peroxidation induced by carbon tetrachloride, making a significant hepatoprotective effect in accordance with the liver function tests.

Evaluation of the DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenols and antioxidant activities in Indian wild Bambusa vulgaris "Vittata" methanolic leaf extract

Arvind Kumar Goyal, Sushil Kumar Middha, Arnab Sen

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2010 1(1):40-45

Background: Antioxidants have the ability to protect organisms from damage caused by free radical-induced oxidative stress. A lot of research is being carried out worldwide directed toward finding natural antioxidants of plant origin. The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of Bambusa vulgaris “Vittata” (BVV) leaves is reported along with screening for photochemical constituents of the Indian, wild BVV methanolic leaf extract. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was tested spectrophotometrically, measuring the ability of the plant extract to scavenge a stable DPPH• free radical and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Results: Preliminary studies show the presence of carbohydrates, reducing sugars, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, anthraquinones and glycosides. The antioxidant activity of the investigated extract has a scavenging ability of hydroxyl peroxide radicals (421.74 ± 25.61 mg/ml) and DPPH

Prominent wound healing properties of indigenous medicines

Nilesh Gupta, UK Jain

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2010 1(1):2-13

Wound, a clinical entity, is as old as mankind and often possesses problems in clinical practice. Naturally, the investigative curiosity to promote healing continues since ages. A lot of research has been envisaged to develop better healing agents and it has been a challenging task to generate them and keep pace with the problems encountered. Several drugs of plant, mineral, and animal origin are described in the Ayurveda for their wound healing properties. Most of these drugs are derived from plants. Some of these plants have been screened scientifically for the evaluation of their wound healing activity in different pharmacological models. Some Ayurvedic medicinal plants, namely Argemone mexicana, Boerhaavia diffusa, Catharanthus roseas, Diospyros cardifolia, Eclipta alba, Ficus religiosa, Hypericum perforatum, Lawsonia inermis, Merremia tridentate, and Swertia chirata, were found to be effective in experimental models. The rapidity of wound healing depends, to a considerable extent, on the contraction that begins a few days after injury and continues for several weeks. In the present review, attempts are made to understand various aspects of wound healing in terms of percentage closure of wound, period of complete epithelialization, tensile strength, histopathology, and weight of granuloma in different wound models.

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