Experimental Station for Medicinal Plants-Kyoto University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences

KyotoOperated by Kyoto University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, the Experimental Station for Medicinal Plants is located on the graduate school’s campus, spanning a total area of 4044.37 m2. It is located directly next to the graduate school’s lecture rooms and research laboratories, which offers major advantages, such as allowing for the smooth implementation of observational and practical training for everyday classes as well as collection of research specimens at any time.
In addition to serving as an educational herbarium garden where a variety of medicinal plants are grown, the Station also conducts research into medicinal plant cultivation and grows materials for use in various research projects. Plants of tropical origin, including fragrant wood varieties, are cultivated in the facility’s greenhouse.

Url : http://www.pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp/medicinal-plants/en/

Compound Interest

Compound Interest is a site that aims to take a closer look at the chemical compounds we come across on a day-to-day basis, explaining them with easy-to-understand graphics.

The site is run single-handedly by me, Andy Brunning. I’m a chemistry educator based in Cambridge, UK, and create the graphics for the site in my spare time.

Please note: none of the graphics on this site are intended for a specific chemistry syllabus, and it should not be assumed that they comprehensively cover any portion of required content for specific qualifications.

Url : http://www.compoundchem.com

Pharmacognosy´s topics – Medicinal plants

When man was in need of healing procedures for diseases and accidents, came to natural products as the main source to solve the problem, due to he did not know the current chemicals.
It was therefore necessary to classify medicinal plants according to the type of ailment and the objectives it was intended.
This practice was associated with early plant domestication techniques but played an important collection which even today is practiced by farmers.
Phytotherapy (herbal therapy) has its origins in the beginning of humanity and belongs to the field of medicine.
The first manifestation of its utilization was in the magic rituals as complement for the treatment of some discomfort.

Early experience with herbal treatments were reflected in ancient herbariums at the time of the Sumerians, Assyrians, Babylonians and Phoenicians. The Ebers Papyrus collected 700 plants.
The oldest of these practices is the Chinese one, with more than 10 000 years, but were the Greeks and Romans who undertook the systematic study of medicinal plants.

Let´s start this Pharmacognosy´s course by defining some necessary terms for understanding.

Url : http://www.medicinalplants-pharmacognosy.com/

National Medicinal Plants Board

India has 15 Agroclimatic zones and 17000-18000 species of flowering plants of which 6000-7000 are estimated to have medicinal usage in folk and documented systems of medicine, like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani

and Homoeopathy. About 960 species of medicinal plants are estimated to be in trade of which 178 species have annual consumption levels in excess of 100 metric tones.

Medicinal plants are not only a major resource base for the traditional medicine & herbal industry but also provide livelihood and health security to a large segment of Indian population. The domestic trade of the AYUSH industry is of the order of Rs. 80 to 90 billion (1US$ = Rs.50). The Indian medicinal plants and their products

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also account of exports in the range of Rs. 10 billion.

There is global resurgence in traditional and alternative health care systems resulting in world herbal trade which stands at US$ 120 billion and is expected to reach US$ 7 trillion by 2050. Indian share in the world trade, at present, however, is quite low. (more…)

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)

Introduction to TCM

With a history of 2000 to 3000 years, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has formed a unique system to diagnose and cure illness. The TCM approach is fundamentally different from that of Western medicine. In TCM, the understanding of the human body is based on the holistic understanding of the universe as described in Daoism, and the treatment of illness is based primarily on the diagnosis and differentiation of syndromes.
The TCM approach treats zang–fu organs as the core of the human body. Tissue and organs are connected through a network of channels and blood vessels inside human body. Qi (or Chi) acts as some kind of carrier of information that is expressed externally through jingluo system. Pathologically, a dysfunction of the zang-fu organs may be reflected on the body surface through the network, and meanwhile, (more…)

Kampo

Kampō (or Kanpō) is a traditional Japanese therapeutic system, the bulk of which is derived from the classical Chinese medicine that came to Japan in the 5th and 6th centuries. Over the years, the Japanese have created unique diagnosis methods, herbal formulas, and therapeutic approaches.

Kampo includes most of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) modalities including acupuncture, moxibustion (heat therapy), Anma (or Tuina, an ancient massage technique and the basis of Shiatsu therapy), diet, and herbal medicine.

Kampo.ca is a website primarily devoted to discussing Kampo herbal medicine. For information on Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion, please visit Acupuncture-Treatment.com.

URL : http://www.kampo.ca/

NaturalPedia

The NaturalNews Network is a non-profit collection of public education websites covering topics that empower individuals to make positive changes in their health, environmental sensitivity, consumer choices and informed skepticism. The NaturalNews Network is owned and operated by Truth Publishing International, Ltd., a Taiwan corporation. It is not recognized as a 501(c)3 non-profit in the United States, but it operates without a profit incentive, and its key writer, Mike Adams, receives absolutely no payment for his time, articles or books other than reimbursement for items purchased in order to conduct product reviews. (more…)

The American Herbal Pharmacopoeia

About AHP

Herbal medicines have provided the world’s populations, including Americans, with safe, effective and low cost medicines for centuries. They have a rich and extensive historical basis in use and study which can be referenced to ancient medical writings. More importantly, modern research has validated many of the traditional uses ascribed to herbs. When integrated into medical care with other medications, botanicals can provide consumers and patients with the best chance for maintaining a high quality of life and, in some cases, increase their chance of survival. They can also fill therapeutic niches that are not adequately addressed through conventional therapies. As botanical supplements are integrated into the health care programs of more and more people, it becomes necessary that information regarding their optimal use be made available. Similarly, independent quality control requirements for producing herbal products need to be established to ensure that the highest degree of safety and effectiveness is achieved. Information relative to their safe clinical use, toxicology, interactions with conventional drugs, etc., is especially important to safeguard the public health. (more…)

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH)

The Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) comprises those administratively responsible for the major Australian and New Zealand Herbaria with the aim of promoting all matters of interest to herbaria in Australasia and to increase cooperation and understanding between herbaria. Its operations are governed by a Constitution and a Statement of Objectives.

CHAH is incorporated in the A.C.T. and is a registered business ABN 31 496 409 479.

Business address: (Registration No. A04433)

c/- Australian National Herbarium
CSIRO
GPO Box 1600
Canberra ACT 2601

URL : http://www.chah.gov.au/

The Alternative Medicine Foundation

These resources relate mainly to Western traditions of herbal medicine (also referred to as phytomedicine, herbal medicine or botanical medicine) that rely primarily on the use of single herbs. Other traditional systems of medicine, particularly Asian traditions, use many herbs in synergistic mixtures or blends. Examples are Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ayurvedic, and Tibetan. They are not covered in the following listings. Note our Resource Guides on Ayurvedic, Tibetan medicine, and Traditional Systems of Medicine.

We are just beginning to understand the complexities of herbal medicine, with its multiplicity of active chemicals in a single herb, and the interaction of a mixture of herbs found in traditional therapies. Previously, scientific research relied on the drug development model, which focused on a single compound and mode of action. (more…)

The Herbal Resource

Never in our history have we been using medicinal herbs and herbal supplements as much as we do today, and there are new and exciting discoveries made daily regarding the health benefits of natural medicines. We are constantly looking for new ways to feel better and improve our overall health. We do not have the same blind faith in pharmaceutical drugs as we used to and we are turning more and more to natural remedies.

There are many medicinal herbs and herbal supplements that have a strong reputation for alleviate symptoms of illnesses. Traditional medicinal herbs are used more often to treat the whole person rather than individual symptoms and are formulated to stimulate the body’s natural healing powers. Medicinal herbs can be taken as tinctures,capsules and pills or you can simply pick them yourself! (more…)

Revised Section F: Natural Products and Related Compounds

These Rules are as close as possible to the published version [see P.M. Giles, Jr. Pure Appl. Chem., 1999, 71, 587-643. Copyright IUPAC; reproduced with the permission of IUPAC]. If you need to cite these rules please quote this reference as their source. In the World Wide Web version errors which have been detected have been corrected and in 2004 a list of corrections and other changes was published in Pure Appl. Chem., 2004, 76, 1283-1292. These errors and changes are marked by; which is a link to details of the change and where it applies. Many of these errors were detected during the translation of it into German by K.-H. Hellwich. Additional corrections since this list was published are marked by.

URL :http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iupac/sectionF/

TeleSpec

IR Spectra Simulation on the WorldWideWeb

The aim of the project TeleSpec is to provide a tool for the simulation of infrared spectra, especially for compounds whose spectra are not available in any database. Using the benefits of the Internet and of modern methods in computational chemistry, the TeleSpec project is based on the use of artificial neural networks and new molecular representations of structures.
(more…)

Infrared Spectroscopy in Wikipedia

Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, that is light with a longer wavelength and lower frequency than visible light. It covers a range of techniques, mostly based on absorption spectroscopy. As with all spectroscopic techniques, it can be used to identify and study chemicals. A common laboratory instrument that uses this technique is a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer.

The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is usually divided into three regions; the near-, mid- and far- infrared, named for their relation to the visible spectrum. The higher energy near-IR, approximately 14000–4000 cm−1 (0.8–2.5 μm wavelength) can excite overtone or harmonic vibrations. The mid-infrared, approximately 4000–400 cm−1 (2.5–25 μm) may be used to study the fundamental vibrations and associated rotational-vibrational structure.

(more…)

HERBAL MEDICINE: An Alternative and Complementary Medicine Resource Guide

INTRODUCTION

These resources relate mainly to Western traditions of herbal medicine (also referred to as phytomedicine, herbal medicine or botanical medicine) that rely primarily on the use of single herbs. Other traditional systems of medicine, particularly Asian traditions, use many herbs in synergistic mixtures or blends. Examples are Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ayurvedic, and Tibetan. They are not covered in the following listings. Note our Resource Guides on Ayurvedic, Tibetan medicine, and Traditional Systems of Medicine.

We are just beginning to understand the complexities of herbal medicine, with its multiplicity of active chemicals in a single herb, and the interaction of a mixture of herbs found in traditional therapies. Previously, scientific research relied on the drug development model, which focused on a single compound and mode of action. In order to effectively research whether herbal medicine is effective or even safe, we need to detect all the active chemicals that exist in a medicinal plant, but also evaluate their effects on humans individually and together. We need to know whether the production process changes the chemicals; whether these compounds interfere with each other or with other drugs; and if our current technology can accurately measure all of the potential chemicals that may play a part in the effectiveness of an “herbal drug”. Herbal growers, manufacturers, researchers, medical clinicians, funding agencies are all part of the panoply of actors involved in the making of safe and effective herbal medicine.

As demand for alternative medicine has grown, so have the harvesting and collection pressures for numerous ecologies that produce the medicinal plants of interest. The largest impact on the availability has been the loss of habitat worldwide. In conjunction with loss of physical resources, many aboriginal societies who have maintained vast and important bodies of knowledge about the identification and use of medicinal plants are being lost as well. Both physical habitat and ancient knowledge, once lost, will be gone forever. An educated public is the best hope for influencing governmental decisions that will have far reaching implications.

The resources are selected and categorized to help you with your own research or background reading so you can become an intelligent, educated consumer not only of herbal products but, equally importantly, of information. Ultimately, together we will influence not only the quality of herbal medicine available to us in stores, but also whether we will maintain the diversity of plant life necessary to sustain a diversity of cultures and alternative methods for maintaining good health.

For additional resources on relevant Alternative and Complementary modalities, see our Resource Guides on:

URL : http://www.amfoundation.org/

Institute for Traditional Medicine

About the Institute for Traditional Medicine

The Institute for Traditional Medicine and Preventive Health Care, Inc. (ITM), is a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization established in 1979, incorporated in 1983, and moved to its current head office in 1988. ITM was founded by and is directed by Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D.

Traditional medicine refers to ideas, experiences, and substances that have been handed down generation to generation from ancient times, where the origins are obscure but where the continuity of basic understanding has been assured by a formal structure. Among the primary traditional medical systems still active today are the Chinese, Tibetan, and Indian (Ayurvedic). ITM enriches the lives of people seeking traditional medicine knowledge and services by clarifying the nature of traditional medicine and demonstrating how it can be utilized in the modern setting.

To accomplish its goals, the Institute performs 6 basic functions:

  1. It operates two clinical facilities, the Immune Enhancement Project (IEP) and the An Hao Natural Health Care Clinic (An Hao). IEP is a low cost treatment center providing acupuncture, Chinese herb therapies, and Zen shiatsu primarily for patients with serious ailments (such as cancer and HIV) that can clearly benefit from effective adjunctive therapies, though all are welcome so long as they follow program protocol. IEP serves as a charitable outlet for ITM’s clinical activities. An Hao is a mixed therapies clinic offering naturopathic medicine, acupuncture, chiropractic, Zen shiatsu, Chinese herbs, and modern medicine. It is a demonstration clinic that illustrates a potential new model for integrative health care. In addition, ITM provides consulting to other clinics that wish to follow the presentation method or the therapies that are available at these clinics. Selected students at local acupuncture colleges, particularly of the Chinese medical department of the National College of Naturopathic Medicine, can get advanced training at these clinics.
  2. It provides numerous educational materials, primarily articles written by Subhuti Dharmananda. Currently, over 2,000 pages of such articles are in the ITM archive. Dr. Dharmananda provides free consulting to practitioners who are members of the START Group, to aid in their understanding of herbs, issues related to traditional medicine, individual patients, and practice methods.
  3. It conducts background research in traditional medicine, including medical journal searches in China (carried out by Dr. Fu Kezhi in Harbin) and computer searches here in the U.S. (more…)

Ethnobotany

What is Ethnobotany?

Ethnobotany is the study of how people of a particular culture and region make of use of indigenous plants. Ethnobotanists explore how plants are used for such things as food, shelter, medicine, clothing, hunting, and religious ceremonies.

Medicinal plants are extracted
at Shaman Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Photo by Mark Tuschmanii, 1996.

Ethnobotany has its roots in botany, the study of plants. Botany, in turn, originated in part from an interest in finding plants to help fight illness. In fact, medicine and botany have always had close ties. Many of today’s drugs have been derived from plant sources. Pharmacognosy is the study of medicinal and toxic products from natural plant sources. At one time, pharmacologists researching drugs were required to understand the natural plant world, and physicians were schooled in plant-derived remedies. However, as modern medicine and drug research advanced, chemically-synthesized drugs replaced plants as the source of most medicinal agents in industrialized countries. Although research in plant sources continued and plants were still used as the basis for some drug development, the dominant interest (and resulting research funding) shifted to the laboratory.[More]

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