Role of complementary and alternative medicine in geriatric care: A mini review

Mohammad Jamshed Siddiqui, Chan Sze Min, Rohit Kumar Verma, Shazia Qasim Jamshed

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):81-87

Since time immemorial homo sapiens are subjected to both health and diseases states and seek treatment for succor and assuagement in compromised health states. Since last two decades the progressive rise in the alternative form of treatment cannot be ignored and population seems to be dissatisfied with the conventional treatment modalities and therefore, resort to other forms of treatment, mainly complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The use of CAM is predominantly more popular in older adults and therefore, numerous research studies and clinical trials have been carried out to investigate the effectiveness of CAM in the management of both communicable and non-communicable disease. In this current mini review, we attempt to encompass the use of CAM in chronic non-communicable diseases that are most likely seen in geriatrics. The current review focuses not only on the reassurance of good health practices, emphasizing on the holistic development and strengthening the body's defense mechanisms, but also attempts to construct a pattern of self-care and patient empowerment in geriatrics. The issues of safety with CAM use cannot be sidelined and consultation with a health care professional is always advocated to the patient. Likewise, responsibility of the health care professional is to inform the patient about the safety and efficacy issues. In order to substantiate the efficacy and safety of CAMs, evidence-based studies and practices with consolidated standards should be planned and executed.

Value addition in sesame: A perspective on bioactive components for enhancing utility and profitability

Niti Pathak, A. K. Rai, Ratna Kumari, K. V. Bhat

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):147-155

Sesame seed is a reservoir of nutritional components with numerous beneficial effects along with health promotion in humans. The bioactive components present in the seed include vital minerals, vitamins, phytosterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and unique class of lignans such as sesamin and sesamolin. The presence of phenylpropanoid compounds namely lignans along with tocopherols and phytosterols provide defense mechanism against reactive oxygen species and increases keeping quality of oil by preventing oxidative rancidity. In this article, we have reviewed the nutraceutical, pharmacological, traditional and industrial value of sesame seeds with respect to bioactive components that hold high antioxidant value. Valuable information on superior functional components of sesame will strongly promote the use of sesame seeds in the daily diet world-wide. In spite of huge repertoire of sesame germplasm collection, limited research efforts on the use of conventional and biotechnological methodologies have resulted in minimal success in developing nutritionally superior cultivars. In consequence, value addition efforts in sesame would enable development of genotypes with high antioxidant activity and subsequently prevention of free radical related diseases. Modification of bioactive components in sesame would enable production of stabilized sesame oil with enhanced shelf life and better market value.

Intensification of bioactive compounds extraction from medicinal plants using ultrasonic irradiation

Renata Vardanega, Diego T. Santos, M. Angela A. Meireles

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):88-95

Extraction processes are largely used in many chemical, biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries for recovery of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants. To replace the conventional extraction techniques, new techniques as high-pressure extraction processes that use environment friendly solvents have been developed. However, these techniques, sometimes, are associated with low extraction rate. The ultrasound can be effectively used to improve the extraction rate by the increasing the mass transfer and possible rupture of cell wall due the formation of microcavities leading to higher product yields with reduced processing time and solvent consumption. This review presents a brief survey about the mechanism and aspects that affecting the ultrasound assisted extraction focusing on the use of ultrasound irradiation for high-pressure extraction processes intensification.

Molecule mechanism of stem cells in Arabidopsis thaliana

Wenjin Zhang, Rongming Yu

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):105-112

Plants possess the ability to continually produce new tissues and organs throughout their life. Unlike animals, plants are exposed to extreme variations in environmental conditions over the course of their lives. The vitality of plants is so powerful that they can survive several hundreds of years or even more making it an amazing miracle that comes from plant stem cells. The stem cells continue to divide to renew themselves and provide cells for the formation of leaves, stems, and flowers. Stem cells are not only quiescent but also immortal, pluripotent and homeostatic. Stem cells are the magic cells that repair tissues and regenerate organs. During the past decade, scholars around the world have paid more and more attention toward plant stem cells. At present, the major challenge is in relating molecule action mechanism to root apical meristem, shoot apical meristem and vascular system. The coordination between stem cells maintenance and differentiation is critical for normal plant growth and development. Elements such as phytohormones, transcription factors and some other known or unknown genes cooperate to balance this process. In this review, Arabidopsis thaliana as a pioneer system, we highlight recent developments in molecule modulating, illustrating how plant stem cells generate new mechanistic insights into the regulation of plants growth and development.

Psidium guajava: A review on its potential as an adjunct in treating periodontal disease

K. Ravi, P. Divyashree

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):96-100

Plants for thousands of years have been used to enhance health and for medicinal purposes. Psidium guajava is one which has an enormous wealth of medicinal value. It for long has been known for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic properties. Despite of its widespread biologic uses there is a dearth of information on its therapeutic effect in the treatment of periodontal disease. Hence, this review is an attempt to highlight the potential of P. guajava in the treatment of periodontal disease. Internet databases PubMed, Google Scholar were searched and the most relevant articles were considered for review.

Cytotoxicity of dietary flavonoids on different human cancer types

Katrin Sak

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):122-146

Flavonoids are ubiquitous in nature. They are also in food, providing an essential link between diet and prevention of chronic diseases including cancer. Anticancer effects of these polyphenols depend on several factors: Their chemical structure and concentration, and also on the type of cancer. Malignant cells from different tissues reveal somewhat different sensitivity toward flavonoids and, therefore, the preferences of the most common dietary flavonoids to various human cancer types are analyzed in this review. While luteolin and kaempferol can be considered as promising candidate agents for treatment of gastric and ovarian cancers, respectively, apigenin, chrysin, and luteolin have good perspectives as potent antitumor agents for cervical cancer; cells from main sites of flavonoid metabolism (colon and liver) reveal rather large fluctuations in anticancer activity probably due to exposure to various metabolites with different activities. Anticancer effect of flavonoids toward blood cancer cells depend on their myeloid, lymphoid, or erythroid origin; cytotoxic effects of flavonoids on breast and prostate cancer cells are highly related to the expression of hormone receptors. Different flavonoids are often preferentially present in certain food items, and knowledge about the malignant tissue-specific anticancer effects of flavonoids could be purposely applied both in chemoprevention as well as in cancer treatment.

Rubus fruticosus (blackberry) use as an herbal medicine

Rameshwar Verma, Tushar Gangrade, Rakesh Punasiya, Chetan Ghulaxe

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):101-104

Wild grown European blackberry Rubus fruticosus) plants are widespread in different parts of northern countries and have been extensively used in herbal medicine. The result show that European blackberry plants are used for herbal medicinal purpose such as antimicrobial, anticancer, antidysentery, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, and also good antioxidant. Blackberry plant (R. fruticosus) contains tannins, gallic acid, villosin, and iron; fruit contains vitamin C, niacin (nicotinic acid), pectin, sugars, and anthocyanins and also contains of berries albumin, citric acid, malic acid, and pectin. Some selected physicochemical characteristics such as berry weight, protein, pH, total acidity, soluble solid, reducing sugar, vitamin C, total antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial screening of fruit, leaves, root, and stem of R. fruticosus, and total anthocyanins of four preselected wild grown European blackberry (R. fruticosus) fruits are investigated. Significant differences on most of the chemical content detect among the medicinal use. The highest protein content (2%), the genotypes with the antioxidant activity of standard butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) studies 85.07%. Different cultivars grown in same location consistently show differences in antioxidant capacity.

Pharmacological aspects of Nerium indicum Mill: A comprehensive review

Priyankar Dey, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):156-162

Phytomedicine is the oldest medical practice known to man. Since the dawn of mankind, various plant resources are used to cure different diseases and also for a long and healthy life. The ancient knowledge of plant based medicine has transferred from generations to generations and accumulated as ethnopharmacological knowledge among different ethnic groups. India is the spanning bed of traditional phytomedicinal system where Ayurveda was born out of the knowledge of traditional medicine. In various other countries of South-Eastern Asia, South America, and in Arabian countries, still today, a great number of people rely primarily on phytomedicines to cure diseases. In the complementary and alternative medicinal systems, Nerium indicum is one such plant which is famed for its therapeutic efficiency in different diseases globally. In the present time, when the pharmaceutical companies are concentrating more toward the plant based traditional medicines to avoid the side-effects and resistance against synthetic drugs, N. indicum has proved its efficiency in different disease models. Therefore, this review comprehensively covers the medicinal and pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant N. indicum.

Modulation of diabetes-mellitus-induced male reproductive dysfunctions in experimental animal models with medicinal plants

Gyan Chand Jain, Ram Niwas Jangir

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):113-121

Today diabetes mellitus has emerged as a major healthcare problem throughout the world. It has recently broken the age barrier and has been diagnosed in younger people also. Sustained hyperglycemia is associated with many complications including male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of the diabetes mellitus in various traditional system of medicine and in folklore worldwide as they are a rich source of bioactive phytoconstituents, which lower blood glucose level and/or also act as antioxidants resulting in the amelioration of oxidative-stress-induced diabetic complications. The present review describes the ameliorative effects of medicinal plants or their products, especially on male reproductive dysfunctions, in experimental diabetic animal models.

Polyherbal formulation: Concept of ayurveda

Subramani Parasuraman, Gan Siaw Thing, Sokkalingam Arumugam Dhanaraj

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):73-80

Ayurveda is one of the traditional medicinal systems of Indian. The philosophy behind Ayurveda is preventing unnecessary suffering and living a long healthy life. Ayurveda involves the use of natural elements to eliminate the root cause of the disease by restoring balance, at the same time create a healthy life-style to prevent the recurrence of imbalance. Herbal medicines have existed world-wide with long recorded history and they were used in ancient Chinese, Greek, Egyptian and Indian medicine for various therapies purposes. World Health Organization estimated that 80% of the word's inhabitants still rely mainly on traditional medicines for their health care. The subcontinent of India is well-known to be one of the major biodiversity centers with about 45,000 plant species. In India, about 15,000 medicinal plants have been recorded, in which the communities used 7,000-7,500 plants for curing different diseases. In Ayurveda, single or multiple herbs (polyherbal) are used for the treatment. The Ayurvedic literature Sarangdhar Samhita' highlighted the concept of polyherbalism to achieve greater therapeutic efficacy. The active phytochemical constituents of individual plants are insufficient to achieve the desirable therapeutic effects. When combining the multiple herbs in a particular ratio, it will give a better therapeutic effect and reduce the toxicity. This review mainly focuses on important of the polyherbalism and its clinical significance.

Dietary supplementation of chloroquine with nigella sativa seed and oil extracts in the treatment of malaria induced in mice with plasmodium berghei

Promise Madu Emeka, Lorina Ineta Badger-Emeka, Chiamaka Maryann Eneh, Tahir Mahmood Khan

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):357-362

Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary combination of Nigella sativa seed and oil extracts with chloroquine (CQ), and how these combinations enhance CQ efficacy in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and their survival rates. Materials and Methods: Chloroquine sensitive P. berghei, NK65 strain was used for the study. This was passaged intraperitoneally into albino mice with a 0.2ml standard inoculum consisting of 10 6 parasitized erythrocyte suspension in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Parasitaemia was ascertained by microscopical examination of blood films under oil immersion at X100 magnification. Results: Nigella sativa seed in feed (NSSF), NSSF + CQ on day 4, produced 86.1% and 86.0% suppression respectively, while Nigella sativa oil extract in feed (NSOF) and in combination with CQ had 86.0% and 99.9% suppression respectively. The degree of suppression with the combination was significantly higher compared to CQ alone (P < 0.001) (36.1%). Complete parasitaemia clearance was obtained on the 20 th and 15 th day of treatment for NSSF, NSSF + CQ respectively, while that for NSOF and NSOF + CQ was on days 26 and 12 respectively. For CQ parasite clearance was 12 days with treatment. Also, the combinastion of 10 mg/kg Nigella sativa oil treatment injected intraperitoneally with oral CQ produced very significant parasite suppression (P < 0.0001) (93%). Survival rate in NSSF and NSOF and in combination with CQ groups was 100 and 60.0% for CQ alone. Conclusion : sThis study shows that the use of Nigella sativa seed and oil extract as dietary supplements in combination with CQ has a potential in enhancing the efficacy of CQ and could be of benefit in management of malaria.

In Vivo skin hydration and anti-erythema effects of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii gel materials after single and multiple applications

Lizelle T Fox, Jeanetta du Plessis, Minja Gerber, Sterna van Zyl, Banie Boneschans, Josias H Hamman

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):392-403

Objective: To investigate the skin hydrating and anti-erythema activity of gel materials from Aloe marlothii A. Berger and A. ferox Mill. in comparison to that of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in healthy human volunteers. Materials and Methods: Aqueous solutions of the polisaccharidic fractions of the selected aloe leaf gel materials were applied to the volar forearm skin of female subjects. The hydration effect of the aloe gel materials were measured with a Corneometer &#174; CM 825, Visioscan &#174; VC 98 and Cutometer &#174; dual MPA 580 after single and multiple applications. The Mexameter &#174; MX 18 was used to determine the anti-erythema effects of the aloe material solutions on irritated skin areas. Results: The A. vera and A. marlothii gel materials hydrated the skin after a single application, whereas the A. ferox gel material showed dehydration effects compared to the placebo. After multiple applications all the aloe materials exhibited dehydration effects on the skin. Mexameter &#174; readings showed that A. vera and A. ferox have anti-erythema activity similar to that of the positive control group (i.e. hydrocortisone gel) after 6 days of treatment. Conclusion: The polysaccharide component of the gel materials from selected aloe species has a dehydrating effect on the skin after multiple applications. Both A. vera and A. ferox gel materials showed potential to reduce erythema on the skin similar to that of hydrocortisone gel.

Quantification of allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-ultrasonic sound and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves

Sankhadip Bose, Bibek Laha, Subhasis Banerjee

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):288-293

Background: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been accepted universally to be applied in food, spice and traditional medicine. The medicinal and other beneficial properties of garlic are attributed to organosulfur compounds. Objective: As of today no simultaneous analysis has been performed; hence the transformation of allicin to its degraded products during cultivation and storage is open into doubt. Materials and Methods: In our present work, we have tried to develop a sensitive and reproducible analytical method to measure allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-acoustic waves and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves. Results: The process revealed the effect of different radiation techniques on fresh garlic retains the principle component, allicin in its pure form and generated higher yield than the conventional way of extraction. Conclusion: Therefore, materializing these techniques in the pharmaceutical industry will definitely be proved beneficial in term of time as well as money. Most interestingly, the methods ruled out possibilities of degradation of organosulfur compounds as well.

Efficacy of Acorus calamus on collagen maturation on full thickness cutaneous wounds in rats

Thangavel Ponrasu, Karuppanan Natarajan Madhukumar, Moorthy Ganeshkumar, Kuttalam Iyappan, Vilvanathan Sangeethapriya, Vinaya Subramani Gayathri, Lonchin Suguna

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):299-305

Background: The rhizomes of Acorus calamus and their essential oil are widely used in the flavoring industry and production of alcoholic beverages in Europe. Recent reports have confirmed the presence of several pharmacological components in the rhizomes of A. calamus. Objective: The objective of this study was to find out the efficacy of topical administration of ethanolic extract of A. calamus on dermal wound healing in rats. Wound healing is a natural process occurring in living organisms, which results in a complete or partial remodeling of injured tissue and ultimately progresses to the formation of a fibrous scar. Several natural products have been reported to augment the wound healing process. Materials and Methods: An ethanolic extract of A. calamus was prepared and its wound-healing efficacy was studied. An excision wound was made on the back of the rat and 200 &#956;L (40 mg/kg body weight) of the A. calamus extract was applied topically once daily for the treated wounds. The control wounds were treated with 200 &#956;L of phosphate buffered saline. Results: The granulation tissues formed were removed at 4, 8 and 12 days and biochemical parameters such as deoxyribonucleic acid, total protein, total collagen, hexosamine and uronic acids were measured. The amount of type I/III collagen formed in control and treated wound tissues was evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The epithelialization time, tensile strength and histological examination of the wounds were also studied. Biochemical analyses of the granulation tissues revealed a significant increase in collagen, hexosamine and uronic acid when compared with the control. The tensile strength of extract treated wounds was found to increase by 112%. A significant reduction in lipid peroxide levels suggested that A. calamus possesses antioxidant components. Conclusions: The results strongly confirm the beneficial effects of A. calamus in augmenting the wound healing process.

Anti-inflammatory effects of Cryptotympana atrataFabricius slough shed on contact dermatitis induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in mice

Miyoung Kim, Hanna Kim, Jeonghyun Ryu, Suzy Jo, Guemsan Lee, Mi Heon Ryu, Hyungwoo Kim, Su In Cho

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):377-382

Background: The slough shed of Cryptotympana atrata Fabricius is widely used to treat skin diseases in China, Japan, and Korea. Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of C. atrata on contact dermatitis. Materials and Methods: We investigated the effects of C. atrata methanol extract (MECA) on ear swelling, histophathological changes and cytokine production in 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact dermatitis (CD) mice. Results: Topical application of MECA effectively inhibited enlargement of ear swelling (30 and 100 &#956;/ear, P < 0.05; 300 &#956;g/ear, P < 0.01). MECA treatment also inhibited hyperplasia, spongiosis (100 and 300 &#956;g/ear, P < 0.001), and immune cell infiltration (30 &#956;g/ear, P < 0.05; 100 and 300 &#956;g/ear, P < 0.001) induced by DNFB. In addition, treatment with MECA suppressed the increase in the levels of TNF-&#945; (P < 0.05), IFN-g (3, 100 &#956;g/ear, P < 0.05; 300 &#956;g/ear, P < 0.01), and IL-6 (100 &#956;g/ear, P < 0.05; 300 &#956;g/ear, P < 0.01) production. Conclusion: These data suggest that MECA has the potential for use in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases, including CD. Moreover, the results presented herein indicate that anti-inflammatory actions of MECA are mediated by decreasing production of TNF-&#945;, IFN-&#947;, and IL-6 in inflamed tissues.

Anti-tumor activity of safranal against neuroblastoma cells

Saeed Samarghandian, Mohammad Ebrahim Shoshtari, Javad Sargolzaei, Hosna Hossinimoghadam, Jabbari Azad Farahzad

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):419-424

Objective: Safranal (2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxaldehyde, C10H14O) is an active ingredient in the saffron, which is used in traditional medicine, and also, the biological activity of saffron in anti-cancer is in development. It has been reported to have anti-oxidant effects, but its anti-tumor effects remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of safranal on anti-tumor on neuroblastoma cells. Materials and Methods: Neuroblastoma cells were cultured and exposed to safranal (0, 10, 15, 20, 50 &#956;g/ml). Cell proliferation was examined using the 3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptotic cells, cell cycle distribution, and sub-G1 fraction were analyzed using flow cytometric analysis after propidium iodide staining. Results: Safranal inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The IC (50) values against the neuroblastoma cell line were determined as 11.1 and 23.3 &#956;g/ml after 24 and 48 h, respectively. Safranal induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to control cells indicating that apoptotic cell death is involved in safranal toxicity. Conclusions: Our pre-clinical study demonstrated a neuroblastoma cell line to be highly sensitive to safranal-mediated growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death. Although the molecular mechanisms of safranal action are not yet clearly understood, it appears to have potential as a therapeutic agent.

Phytochemical and anti-staphylococcal biofilm assessment of Dracaena draco L. Spp. draco resin

V. Di Stefano, R. Pitonzo, D. Schillaci

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):434-440

Background: Dracaena draco L. ssp. draco is known as the "dragon's blood tree" and it is endemic from the Canary Islands and Morocco. Objective: Carry out phytochemical investigation of acetonic extracts of red resin obtained from the trunk of D. draco, to obtain to the isolation of the most abundant resin constituents, belonging to the class of flavonoids: flavans, along with homoisoflavans and homoisoflavanones. Materials and Methods: The structures of the isolated compounds were established by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry data and comparison with literature data. The acetonic extract was evaluated for its anti-staphylococcal properties against two reference strains. Results: The acetonic extracts resulted inactive at the maximum tested concentration of 1000 &#956;g/ml against free living forms of tested staphylococci, but they showed a very interesting activity in the prevention of a biofilm formation at a concentration equal to 200 &#956;g/ml against S. aureus ATCC 25923.

Luteolin, a bioflavonoid inhibits azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis: Involvement of iNOS and COX-2

Ashok Kumar Pandurangan, Suresh Kumar, Prakash Dharmalingam, Sudhandiran Ganapasam

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):306-310

Colon cancer (CRC) is a serious health problem through worldwide. Development of novel drug without side effect for this cancer was crucial. Luteolin (LUT), a bioflavonoid has many beneficial effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative properties. Azoxymethane (AOM), a derivative of 1, 2-Dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) was used for the induction of CRC in Balb/C mice. CRC was induced by intraperitoneal injection of AOM to mice at the dose of 15 mg/body kg weight for 3 weeks. Mouse was treated with LUT at the dose of 1.2 mg/body kg weight orally until end of the experiment. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygense (COX)-2 were analyzed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of iNOS and COX-2 were increased in the case of AOM induction. Administration of LUT effectively reduced the expressions of iNOS and COX-2. The present study revealed that, LUT suppresses both iNOS and COX-2 expressions and act as an anti-inflammatory role against CRC.

Aqueous extract from taxus baccata inhibits adenosine deaminase activity significantly in cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues

Zahide Esra Durak, Suleyman Buber, Erdinc Devrim, Hilmi Kocaoglu, Ilker Durak

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):214-216

Objective: To investigate possible effects of aqueous taxus baccata extract on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in cancerous and noncancerous human tissues and to clarify mechanism(s) of its anticancer potential. Materials and Methods: Cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues were used in the study. The extracts were prepared in distilled water. Before and after treatment with the extracts, ADA activities in the tissue homogenates were measured. Results: ADA activity was found to be higher in gastric tissue compared with colon tissue, but no differences were found between ADA activities of cancerous and noncancerous tissues for both as well. In the plant extract studies, it was found that taxus extract significantly inhibited ADA activity both in cancerous and noncancerous gastric and colon tissues. Conclusion: Our results suggest that aqueous extract from taxus baccata inhibits ADA activities in both gastric and colon tissues significantly. It is suggested that in addition to other proposed mechanisms, accumulated adenosine due to the inhibition of ADA enzyme might also play part in the anticancer properties of taxus species.

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