Modern Phytomedicine:Turning Medicinal Plants into Drugs

Medicinal preparations derived from natural sources, especially from plants, have been in widespread use since time immemorial. Ancient texts of India and China contain exhaustive depictions of the use of a variety of plant-derived medications. In fact, plants remain the main source of medicines for a large proportion of the world’s population, particularly in the developing world, despite the advent of the pharmaceutical chemistry during the early twentieth century, which brought with it the ability to synthesize an enormous variety of medicinal drug molecules and allowed the treatment of previously incurable and/or life-threatening diseases.

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Medicinal Natural Products A Biosynthetic Approach

This book has been written primarily for pharmacy undergraduates to provide a modern text to complement lecture courses dealing with pharmacognosy and the use of natural products in medicine. Nevertheless, it should be of value in most other courses where the study of natural products is included, although the examples chosen are predominantly those possessing pharmacological activity.

For centuries, drugs were entirely of natural origin and composed of herbs, animal products, and inorganic materials. Early remedies may have combined these ingredients with witchcraft, mysticism, astrology, or religion, but it is certain that those treatments that were effective were subsequently recorded and documented, leading to the early Herbals. (more…)

BIOASSAY TECHNIQUES FOR DRUG DEVELOPMENT

The so-called “green wave”, triggered by a growing ecological awareness, has resulted in an increased interest in herbal formulations throughout the world, particularly in the last decade. The consumption of medicinal plants has almost doubled in the West during that period. The efficacy of a number of herbal formulations has been tested by valid phytopharmaceutical techniques and the number of plant-based drugs or health foods has increased steadily to meet the growing demand. Over the years a new relationship between phytochemists and pharmacologists has accordingly developed which, in many cases, has proved to be very productive.

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Tyler’s Herbs of Choice The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals

Since publication in 1999 of the first revision of Herbs of Choice, a plethora of publications has extended both the range and depth of herbal medicinal science. Notable has been the introduction to the West of a number of herbs long popular in Eastern traditional medicine systems. Prominent among these have been Andrographis paniculata, Petasites hybridus (butterbur), Centella asiatica (gotu kola), Bacopa monnieri, and Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) as an ephedra substitute.

There has also been an explosion of concern and scientific investigation into the potential for herb–drug interaction influencing clinical outcomes— from grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi) to St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum). Examination of bleeding and coagulation associated with herbs has been expanded. Recent research has also clarified certain aspects of the mechanisms of action of a number of popular herbs, such as feverfew, ginkgo, and ginseng. Particularly, a wholesale revision of the feverfew treatment has been effected. Phytochemical treatment of liver disease and the activity of phytoestrogens have been more widely explored.

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Spectral Data Base (SDBS)

Introduction

SDBS is an integrated spectral database system for organic compounds,which includes 6 different types of spectra under a directory of the compounds. The six spectra are as follows, an electron impact Mass spectrum (EI-MS), a Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum, a 13C NMR spectrum, a laser Raman spectrum, and an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum. We started the studies on the spectral database system in early 1970s. The construction of the database in the present format was started in 1982 in a mainframe computer that was finished at the end of March 1999. In 2001, National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) under National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and technology (AIST) started to manage and to maintain the SDBS. Currently, EI-MS spectrum, 1H NMR spectrum, 13C NMR spectrum, FT-IR spectrum, and the compound dictionary are active for correcting and maintenance of the data. Since 1997, SDBS has opened to the public with free of charge through TACC (Tsukuba Advanced Computing Center) as RIO-DB (Research Information Data Base). The total accumulated number of access almost reached 200 million at the end of February, 2008. SDBS is a fact database that contains spectral pattern and has been an important database that sends information from Japan to all over the world. The numbers of the data present at the end of March, 2010 were as follows.

URL : http://riodb.ibase.aist.go.jp/riohomee.html

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Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank (BMRBS)

BMRB’s mission is to collect, archive, and disseminate (worldwide in the public domain) the important quantitative data derived from NMR spectroscopic investigations of biological macromolecules. Relevant data are deposited by the scientists who generate them, and in consultation with these scientists, BMRB resolves any problems with the self-consistency and completeness of the deposition. In collaboration with the Protein Data Bank, BMRB provides links between the spectral data and associated atomic coordinates. BMRB works with the user community to develop formats for these data that can be parsed by computers and used for knowledge generation, alone and in conjunction with information from other databases. BMRB’s goal is to empower scientists in their analysis of the structure, dynamics, and chemistry of biological systems and to support further development of the field of biomolecular NMR spectroscopy. Through international collaborations and mirror sites, BMRB endeavors to involve the participation of a wider group of scientists and to enhance its services worldwide.

URL : http://www.bmrb.wisc.edu/

International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research

Introduction

International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research (IJPPR) is a quarterly published online journal. It is to serve the interests of the research-oriented and professional section in the fields of pharmaceutical sciences. The current emphasis of the journal includes (but is not limited to) the following areas: Pharmacogenomics, Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical biosciences, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry by publishing original research work and review articles. The Journal publishes original research work either as a Full Research Paper or as a Short Communication. Review Articles on a current topic in the said fields are also considered for publication by the Journal.

Ethical issues

The Publishing House is committed to the timely publication of peer-reviewed articles in journals and encyclopedias. The Publishing House requires all authors to comply fully with current ethical standards for publication in their disciplines. Manuscripts submitted to the journal must represent reports of original research, and the original data must be available for review by the editor if necessary. All authors of a manuscript must have agreed to its submission and are responsible for its content, including appropriate citations and acknowledgments, and must also have agreed that the corresponding author has the authority to act on their behalf in all matters pertaining to publication of the manuscript. By submission of a manuscript to the journal, the authors guarantee that they have the authority to publish the work and that the manuscript, or one with substantially the same content, was not published previously, and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. When submitting papers for publication, it is expected that the authors will provide written assurance and describe the novelty of their work or in the approach taken in their research in a covering letter.

URL : http://www.ijppr.com/

Journal of Natural Products

History of Journal

The Journal of Natural Products has been the scientific journal of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (http://www.phcog.org) since 1961, but was first published as Lloydia in 1938 by the Lloyd Library and Museum, 917 Plum Street, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202. This institution was founded by John Uri Lzloyd, and its development was also fostered by his brothers Curtis Gates Lloyd and Nelson Ashley Lloyd. The library is a repository of an internationally famous collection of literature in the natural sciences with preeminence in the pharmaceutical sciences, eclectic medicine, botany, and chemistry, and is available to scientists and others for reference and research. The Journal of Natural Products became known under its present title in 1978, during the editorial tenure of Professor Jack L. Beal of the College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University. Originally a quarterly publication, it became a bimonthly journal in 1975, and has appeared monthly since 1992. The American Society of Pharmacognosy began to co-publish the Journal of Natural Products with the American Chemical Society in 1996.

Scope of the Journal

The Journal of Natural Products invites and publishes papers that make substantial and scholarly  contributions to the area of natural products research. Contributions may relate to the chemistry and/or biochemistry of naturally occurring compounds or the biology of living systems from which they are obtained. Specifically, they may be articles that describe secondary metabolites of microorganisms, including antibiotics and mycotoxins; physiologically active compounds from higher plants and animals; biochemical studies, including biosynthesis and microbiological transformations; fermentation and plant tissue culture; the isolation, structure elucidation, and chemical synthesis of novel compounds from nature; and the pharmacology of compounds of natural origin.

Impact Factor

The impact factor for the Journal of Natural Products has increased from 1.432 in 1997 to the highest ever level of 2.418 in 2006. Likewise, the total number of cites has increased from 3,364 in 1997 to 10,647 in 2006. The journal is ranked as #3 among medicinal chemistry journals in terms of its total number of cites, and is one of five American Chemical Society journals credited with nearly 40% of all citations in the field of Medicinal Chemistry.

URL : http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/programs/medchem/journal.cfm

Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy (JPP)

About JPP

The Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy (JPP) is an open access journal that provides rapid publication (monthly) of articles in all areas of the subject.

The Journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Papers will be published approximately one  month after acceptance. All articles published in the JPP will be peer-reviewed.

The Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy will be published monthly (one volume per year) by Academic Journals.

Types of paper

Regular Articles: These should describe new and carefully confirmed findings, and experimental procedures should be given in sufficient detail for others to verify the work. The length of a full paper should be the minimum required to describe and interpret the work clearly.

Short Communications: A Short Communication is suitable for recording the results of complete small investigations or giving details of new models or hypotheses, innovative methods, techniques or apparatus. The style of main sections need not conform to that of full-length papers. Short communications are 2 to 4 printed pages (about 6 to 12 manuscript pages) in length.

Reviews: Submissions of reviews and perspectives covering topics of current interest are welcomed and encouraged. Reviews should be concise and no longer than 4 to 6 printed pages (about 12 to 18 manuscript pages). Review manuscripts are also peer-reviewed.

URL : http://www.academicjournals.org/jpp/Archive.htm

The PLANTS Database


The PLANTS Database provides standardized information about the vascular plants, mosses, liverworts, hornworts, and lichens of the U.S. and its territories. It includes names, plant symbols, checklists, distributional data, species abstracts, characteristics, images, crop information, automated tools, onward Web links, and references. This information primarily promotes land conservation in the United States and its territories, but academic, educational, and general use is encouraged. PLANTS reduces government spending by minimizing duplication and making information exchange possible across agencies and disciplines.

(more…)

American Journal of Botany

SCOPE OF THE JOURNAL

The American Journal of Botany (AJB) publishes peer-reviewed, innovative, significant research of interest to a wide audience of plant scientists in all areas of plant biology (structure, function, development, diversity, genetics, evolution, systematics), all levels of organization (molecular to ecosystem), and all plant groups and allied organisms (cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, and lichens). AJB requires authors to frame their research questions and discuss their results in terms of major questions of plant biology. In general, papers that are too narrowly focused, purely descriptive, natural history, broad surveys, or that contain only preliminary data will not be considered.

As of December 2009, AJB also includes AJB Primer Notes & Protocols in the Plant Sciences,, an online-only section for papers intended to promote rapid dissemination of protocols used in genetic analyses of plants. Subjects appropriate for this section include: (1) marker notes providing primer sequences for microsatellite or other markers in particular taxa, and (2) protocol notes describing new methods for isolating, visualizing, or scoring genetic markers. For complete instructions for this section, see http://www.botany.org/ajb/PNP_Online_instructions.html. (more…)

Electronic Sites of Leading Botany, Plant Biology and Science Journals

These are links to journals in which articles concerning plant biology are published. The sites will almost always have a Tables of Contents available free and may frequently have selected articles, or the entire text online. Some sites are free; others require registration or paid subscriptions. Many journals have free “trial” periods, or bundle online with print subscriptions, so check the site to test availability. Links are checked monthly. Last revised Tuesday, 25-Jan-2011 09:01:20 CST.

URL : http://www.e-journals.org/botany/


Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society

The Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society publishes original papers on systematic and evolutionary botany and comparative studies of both living and fossil plants. Review papers are also welcomed which integrate fields such as cytology, morphogenesis, palynology and phytochemistry into a taxonomic framework. The Journal will only publish new taxa in exceptional circumstances or as part of larger monographic or phylogenetic revisions.

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/

Edited by:
Michael F. Fay

Print ISSN: 0024-4074
Online ISSN: 1095-8339
Frequency: Monthly
Current Volume: 162 / 2010

PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences is a peer-reviewed, open access, globally circulated and well indexed journal publishes articles of significance in all areas of biological sciences in the forms of original research papers, reviews and short research communications.

Recently Published Articles

Evaluation of Enzymes Inhibition Activities of Medicinal Plant from Burkina Faso
Immunosuppressive Proteins Isolated from Spiral and Coccoid Cytoplasmic Solutions of Helicobacter pylori
Seroepidemiological Survey of Helminthic Parasites of Stray Dogs in Sari City, Northern Iran
Danger of Cancerous Tissue Development in Chromosomal Abnormalities
Diabetes Drug Could Work Against Alzheimer’s, Animal Study Suggests
Finger-Trap Tension Stabilizes Cells’ Chromosome-Separating Machinery
Sewage Water Bacteria Fills ‘Missing Link’ in Early Evolution of Life on Earth
The Effect of Magnesium Sulfate on Bleeding Time and Nitric Oxide Production in Preeclamsia
PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Editor-in-Chief: Dr. Hakan Ulukan
Current Volume: Volume 14 Year 2011
ISSN Print: 1028-8880
ISSN Online: 1812-5735
Organizational Affiliation: Asian Network for Scientific Information
News & Announcements
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences is a peer-reviewed, open access, globally circulated and well indexed journal publishes articles of significance in all areas of biological sciences in the forms of original research papers, reviews and short research communications.
Recently Published Articles
Evaluation of Enzymes Inhibition Activities of Medicinal Plant from Burkina Faso
Immunosuppressive Proteins Isolated from Spiral and Coccoid Cytoplasmic Solutions of Helicobacter pylori
Seroepidemiological Survey of Helminthic Parasites of Stray Dogs in Sari City, Northern Iran
Danger of Cancerous Tissue Development in Chromosomal Abnormalities
Diabetes Drug Could Work Against Alzheimer’s, Animal Study Suggests
Finger-Trap Tension Stabilizes Cells’ Chromosome-Separating Machinery
Sewage Water Bacteria Fills ‘Missing Link’ in Early Evolution of Life on Earth
The Effect of Magnesium Sulfate on Bleeding Time and Nitric Oxide Production in Preeclamsia

Indian Journal of Chemistry

Indian Journal of Chemistry (Section B) is a leading monthly journal in Organic and Medicinal Chemistry started publishing from 1976. It publishes papers on organic reaction mechanism, theoretical organic chemistry, structure-activity relationships, medicinal chemistry, synthesis of chiral compounds, bio-organic chemistry, enzymes in organic synthesis, reagents in organic synthesis, heterocyclic compounds, phytochemistry (natural products), amino acids, peptides and proteins, spectroscopy in characterization of organic compounds, chemoenzymatic and enantioselective synthesis of organic compounds, synthesis of fullerenes, metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions, bioactive plant products and combinatorial chemistry. Apart from full length papers, notes and communications, the journal publishes short reviews on frontline areas under the column ” advances in Contemporary Research”.

URL : http://www.niscair.res.in/IJCB/ijcb0.asp

Editor: Dr N. Majumdar (majumdar@niscair.res.in )

Assistant Editor: Manju Choudhary (manju@niscair.res.in )

Phone: 25843833,25846301,25842303,25846304-7,25842990,25840602,25865131-32 Fax: 0091-011-25847062;25849949

E-mail: ijc_b@niscair.res.in

Published by the National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, CSIR,
Dr K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110 012

Journal of Natural Products

Editor-in-Chief: A. Douglas Kinghorn
Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy
College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University
Print Edition ISSN: 0163-3864
Web Edition ISSN: 1520-6025
2009 Impact Factor: 3.159
2009 Total Citations: 16,000
Indexed/Abstracted in: CAS, SCOPUS, EBSCOhost, British Library, PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and SwetsWise.

Journal Scope

The Journal of Natural Products invites and publishes papers that make substantial and scholarly contributions to the area of natural products research. Contributions may relate to the chemistry and/or biochemistry of naturally occurring compounds or the biology of living systems from which they are obtained.

Specifically, there may be articles that describe secondary metabolites of microorganisms, including antibiotics and mycotoxins; physiologically active compounds from terrestrial and marine plants and animals; biochemical studies, including biosynthesis and microbiological transformations; fermentation and plant tissue culture; the isolation, structure elucidation, and chemical synthesis of novel compounds from nature; and the pharmacology of compounds of natural origin.

When new compounds are reported, manuscripts describing their biological activity are much preferred.

Journal Standing

With a high ISI Impact Factor of 3.159 and 16,000 total citations as reported in the 2009 Journal Citation Reports® by Thomson Reuters, Journal of Natural Products ranks highly in four separate ISI Categories: Medicinal Chemistry, Applied Chemistry, Plant Sciences, and Pharmacology & Pharmacy.

Manuscript Categories

Journal of Natural Products publishes Full Papers, Communications, Reviews, Notes and Book Reviews.

URL : http://pubs.acs.org/journal/jnprdf

HERBAL MEDICINE: An Alternative and Complementary Medicine Resource Guide

INTRODUCTION

These resources relate mainly to Western traditions of herbal medicine (also referred to as phytomedicine, herbal medicine or botanical medicine) that rely primarily on the use of single herbs. Other traditional systems of medicine, particularly Asian traditions, use many herbs in synergistic mixtures or blends. Examples are Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ayurvedic, and Tibetan. They are not covered in the following listings. Note our Resource Guides on Ayurvedic, Tibetan medicine, and Traditional Systems of Medicine.

We are just beginning to understand the complexities of herbal medicine, with its multiplicity of active chemicals in a single herb, and the interaction of a mixture of herbs found in traditional therapies. Previously, scientific research relied on the drug development model, which focused on a single compound and mode of action. In order to effectively research whether herbal medicine is effective or even safe, we need to detect all the active chemicals that exist in a medicinal plant, but also evaluate their effects on humans individually and together. We need to know whether the production process changes the chemicals; whether these compounds interfere with each other or with other drugs; and if our current technology can accurately measure all of the potential chemicals that may play a part in the effectiveness of an “herbal drug”. Herbal growers, manufacturers, researchers, medical clinicians, funding agencies are all part of the panoply of actors involved in the making of safe and effective herbal medicine.

As demand for alternative medicine has grown, so have the harvesting and collection pressures for numerous ecologies that produce the medicinal plants of interest. The largest impact on the availability has been the loss of habitat worldwide. In conjunction with loss of physical resources, many aboriginal societies who have maintained vast and important bodies of knowledge about the identification and use of medicinal plants are being lost as well. Both physical habitat and ancient knowledge, once lost, will be gone forever. An educated public is the best hope for influencing governmental decisions that will have far reaching implications.

The resources are selected and categorized to help you with your own research or background reading so you can become an intelligent, educated consumer not only of herbal products but, equally importantly, of information. Ultimately, together we will influence not only the quality of herbal medicine available to us in stores, but also whether we will maintain the diversity of plant life necessary to sustain a diversity of cultures and alternative methods for maintaining good health.

For additional resources on relevant Alternative and Complementary modalities, see our Resource Guides on:

URL : http://www.amfoundation.org/

Institute for Traditional Medicine

About the Institute for Traditional Medicine

The Institute for Traditional Medicine and Preventive Health Care, Inc. (ITM), is a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization established in 1979, incorporated in 1983, and moved to its current head office in 1988. ITM was founded by and is directed by Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D.

Traditional medicine refers to ideas, experiences, and substances that have been handed down generation to generation from ancient times, where the origins are obscure but where the continuity of basic understanding has been assured by a formal structure. Among the primary traditional medical systems still active today are the Chinese, Tibetan, and Indian (Ayurvedic). ITM enriches the lives of people seeking traditional medicine knowledge and services by clarifying the nature of traditional medicine and demonstrating how it can be utilized in the modern setting.

To accomplish its goals, the Institute performs 6 basic functions:

  1. It operates two clinical facilities, the Immune Enhancement Project (IEP) and the An Hao Natural Health Care Clinic (An Hao). IEP is a low cost treatment center providing acupuncture, Chinese herb therapies, and Zen shiatsu primarily for patients with serious ailments (such as cancer and HIV) that can clearly benefit from effective adjunctive therapies, though all are welcome so long as they follow program protocol. IEP serves as a charitable outlet for ITM’s clinical activities. An Hao is a mixed therapies clinic offering naturopathic medicine, acupuncture, chiropractic, Zen shiatsu, Chinese herbs, and modern medicine. It is a demonstration clinic that illustrates a potential new model for integrative health care. In addition, ITM provides consulting to other clinics that wish to follow the presentation method or the therapies that are available at these clinics. Selected students at local acupuncture colleges, particularly of the Chinese medical department of the National College of Naturopathic Medicine, can get advanced training at these clinics.
  2. It provides numerous educational materials, primarily articles written by Subhuti Dharmananda. Currently, over 2,000 pages of such articles are in the ITM archive. Dr. Dharmananda provides free consulting to practitioners who are members of the START Group, to aid in their understanding of herbs, issues related to traditional medicine, individual patients, and practice methods.
  3. It conducts background research in traditional medicine, including medical journal searches in China (carried out by Dr. Fu Kezhi in Harbin) and computer searches here in the U.S. (more…)

Chinese Medicine

What is Chinese Medicine?

Chinese Medicine, the official journal of the International Society for Chinese Medicine, is an open access, peer-reviewed online journal that encompasses all aspects of research on Chinese medicine, provided the material, methods, results, and conclusions are evidence-based, scientifically justified, and ethical.

Areas of interest include herbal medicine, health food, clinical nutrition, acupuncture, Tui-na, Qi-qong, Tai Chi Quan, energy research, medical education, cultural exchange, and technical translation.

Chinese Medicine is a credible channel to disseminate unbiased scientific data, information, and knowledge in Chinese medicine to researchers, clinicians, academics, and students in Chinese medicine, integrative Chinese-Western medicine, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and related biomedical fields.

(more…)

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