All about Pharmacognosy

All about Pharmacognosy

Archive for the ‘Phcog Mag.’ tag

Quantification of allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-ultrasonic sound and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves

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Sankhadip Bose, Bibek Laha, Subhasis Banerjee

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):288-293

Background: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been accepted universally to be applied in food, spice and traditional medicine. The medicinal and other beneficial properties of garlic are attributed to organosulfur compounds. Objective: As of today no simultaneous analysis has been performed; hence the transformation of allicin to its degraded products during cultivation and storage is open into doubt. Materials and Methods: In our present work, we have tried to develop a sensitive and reproducible analytical method to measure allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-acoustic waves and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves. Results: The process revealed the effect of different radiation techniques on fresh garlic retains the principle component, allicin in its pure form and generated higher yield than the conventional way of extraction. Conclusion: Therefore, materializing these techniques in the pharmaceutical industry will definitely be proved beneficial in term of time as well as money. Most interestingly, the methods ruled out possibilities of degradation of organosulfur compounds as well.

Written by Sankhadip Bose

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Efficacy of Acorus calamus on collagen maturation on full thickness cutaneous wounds in rats

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Thangavel Ponrasu, Karuppanan Natarajan Madhukumar, Moorthy Ganeshkumar, Kuttalam Iyappan, Vilvanathan Sangeethapriya, Vinaya Subramani Gayathri, Lonchin Suguna

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):299-305

Background: The rhizomes of Acorus calamus and their essential oil are widely used in the flavoring industry and production of alcoholic beverages in Europe. Recent reports have confirmed the presence of several pharmacological components in the rhizomes of A. calamus. Objective: The objective of this study was to find out the efficacy of topical administration of ethanolic extract of A. calamus on dermal wound healing in rats. Wound healing is a natural process occurring in living organisms, which results in a complete or partial remodeling of injured tissue and ultimately progresses to the formation of a fibrous scar. Several natural products have been reported to augment the wound healing process. Materials and Methods: An ethanolic extract of A. calamus was prepared and its wound-healing efficacy was studied. An excision wound was made on the back of the rat and 200 μL (40 mg/kg body weight) of the A. calamus extract was applied topically once daily for the treated wounds. The control wounds were treated with 200 μL of phosphate buffered saline. Results: The granulation tissues formed were removed at 4, 8 and 12 days and biochemical parameters such as deoxyribonucleic acid, total protein, total collagen, hexosamine and uronic acids were measured. The amount of type I/III collagen formed in control and treated wound tissues was evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The epithelialization time, tensile strength and histological examination of the wounds were also studied. Biochemical analyses of the granulation tissues revealed a significant increase in collagen, hexosamine and uronic acid when compared with the control. The tensile strength of extract treated wounds was found to increase by 112%. A significant reduction in lipid peroxide levels suggested that A. calamus possesses antioxidant components. Conclusions: The results strongly confirm the beneficial effects of A. calamus in augmenting the wound healing process.

Written by Thangavel Ponrasu

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Anti-inflammatory effects of Cryptotympana atrataFabricius slough shed on contact dermatitis induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in mice

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Miyoung Kim, Hanna Kim, Jeonghyun Ryu, Suzy Jo, Guemsan Lee, Mi Heon Ryu, Hyungwoo Kim, Su In Cho

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):377-382

Background: The slough shed of Cryptotympana atrata Fabricius is widely used to treat skin diseases in China, Japan, and Korea. Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of C. atrata on contact dermatitis. Materials and Methods: We investigated the effects of C. atrata methanol extract (MECA) on ear swelling, histophathological changes and cytokine production in 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact dermatitis (CD) mice. Results: Topical application of MECA effectively inhibited enlargement of ear swelling (30 and 100 &#956;/ear, P < 0.05; 300 &#956;g/ear, P < 0.01). MECA treatment also inhibited hyperplasia, spongiosis (100 and 300 &#956;g/ear, P < 0.001), and immune cell infiltration (30 &#956;g/ear, P < 0.05; 100 and 300 &#956;g/ear, P < 0.001) induced by DNFB. In addition, treatment with MECA suppressed the increase in the levels of TNF-&#945; (P < 0.05), IFN-g (3, 100 &#956;g/ear, P < 0.05; 300 &#956;g/ear, P < 0.01), and IL-6 (100 &#956;g/ear, P < 0.05; 300 &#956;g/ear, P < 0.01) production. Conclusion: These data suggest that MECA has the potential for use in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases, including CD. Moreover, the results presented herein indicate that anti-inflammatory actions of MECA are mediated by decreasing production of TNF-&#945;, IFN-&#947;, and IL-6 in inflamed tissues.

Written by Miyoung Kim

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Anti-tumor activity of safranal against neuroblastoma cells

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Saeed Samarghandian, Mohammad Ebrahim Shoshtari, Javad Sargolzaei, Hosna Hossinimoghadam, Jabbari Azad Farahzad

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):419-424

Objective: Safranal (2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxaldehyde, C10H14O) is an active ingredient in the saffron, which is used in traditional medicine, and also, the biological activity of saffron in anti-cancer is in development. It has been reported to have anti-oxidant effects, but its anti-tumor effects remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of safranal on anti-tumor on neuroblastoma cells. Materials and Methods: Neuroblastoma cells were cultured and exposed to safranal (0, 10, 15, 20, 50 &#956;g/ml). Cell proliferation was examined using the 3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptotic cells, cell cycle distribution, and sub-G1 fraction were analyzed using flow cytometric analysis after propidium iodide staining. Results: Safranal inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The IC (50) values against the neuroblastoma cell line were determined as 11.1 and 23.3 &#956;g/ml after 24 and 48 h, respectively. Safranal induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to control cells indicating that apoptotic cell death is involved in safranal toxicity. Conclusions: Our pre-clinical study demonstrated a neuroblastoma cell line to be highly sensitive to safranal-mediated growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death. Although the molecular mechanisms of safranal action are not yet clearly understood, it appears to have potential as a therapeutic agent.

Written by Saeed Samarghandian

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Phytochemical and anti-staphylococcal biofilm assessment of Dracaena draco L. Spp. draco resin

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V. Di Stefano, R. Pitonzo, D. Schillaci

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):434-440

Background: Dracaena draco L. ssp. draco is known as the "dragon's blood tree" and it is endemic from the Canary Islands and Morocco. Objective: Carry out phytochemical investigation of acetonic extracts of red resin obtained from the trunk of D. draco, to obtain to the isolation of the most abundant resin constituents, belonging to the class of flavonoids: flavans, along with homoisoflavans and homoisoflavanones. Materials and Methods: The structures of the isolated compounds were established by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry data and comparison with literature data. The acetonic extract was evaluated for its anti-staphylococcal properties against two reference strains. Results: The acetonic extracts resulted inactive at the maximum tested concentration of 1000 &#956;g/ml against free living forms of tested staphylococci, but they showed a very interesting activity in the prevention of a biofilm formation at a concentration equal to 200 &#956;g/ml against S. aureus ATCC 25923.

Written by V. Di Stefano

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Luteolin, a bioflavonoid inhibits azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis: Involvement of iNOS and COX-2

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Ashok Kumar Pandurangan, Suresh Kumar, Prakash Dharmalingam, Sudhandiran Ganapasam

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):306-310

Colon cancer (CRC) is a serious health problem through worldwide. Development of novel drug without side effect for this cancer was crucial. Luteolin (LUT), a bioflavonoid has many beneficial effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative properties. Azoxymethane (AOM), a derivative of 1, 2-Dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) was used for the induction of CRC in Balb/C mice. CRC was induced by intraperitoneal injection of AOM to mice at the dose of 15 mg/body kg weight for 3 weeks. Mouse was treated with LUT at the dose of 1.2 mg/body kg weight orally until end of the experiment. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygense (COX)-2 were analyzed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of iNOS and COX-2 were increased in the case of AOM induction. Administration of LUT effectively reduced the expressions of iNOS and COX-2. The present study revealed that, LUT suppresses both iNOS and COX-2 expressions and act as an anti-inflammatory role against CRC.

Written by Ashok Kumar Pandurangan

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Aqueous extract from taxus baccata inhibits adenosine deaminase activity significantly in cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues

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Zahide Esra Durak, Suleyman Buber, Erdinc Devrim, Hilmi Kocaoglu, Ilker Durak

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):214-216

Objective: To investigate possible effects of aqueous taxus baccata extract on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in cancerous and noncancerous human tissues and to clarify mechanism(s) of its anticancer potential. Materials and Methods: Cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues were used in the study. The extracts were prepared in distilled water. Before and after treatment with the extracts, ADA activities in the tissue homogenates were measured. Results: ADA activity was found to be higher in gastric tissue compared with colon tissue, but no differences were found between ADA activities of cancerous and noncancerous tissues for both as well. In the plant extract studies, it was found that taxus extract significantly inhibited ADA activity both in cancerous and noncancerous gastric and colon tissues. Conclusion: Our results suggest that aqueous extract from taxus baccata inhibits ADA activities in both gastric and colon tissues significantly. It is suggested that in addition to other proposed mechanisms, accumulated adenosine due to the inhibition of ADA enzyme might also play part in the anticancer properties of taxus species.

Written by Zahide Esra Durak

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Cytotoxicity of gypsogenic acid isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma

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Ilina Krasteva, Maya Yotova, Deyan Yosifov, Niko Benbassat, Kristina Jenett-Siems, Spiro Konstantinov

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):430-433

Background: Gypsophila trichotoma Wend. (Caryophyllaceae) is a medicinal plant which is protected in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. Previous studies have showed the presence of triterpene saponins, sterols, flavonoids, triterpens, etc. Objective: Gypsogenic acid, isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma roots, was evaluated for cytotoxic activity. Materials and Methods: The structure of the compound was elucidated by spectral methods. The cell survival fraction was determined by the MTT dye reduction assay, performed with some modifications. Results: Gypsogenic acid was tested in a panel of human tumor cell lines and was found to inhibit the proliferation of malignant cells. It was active against leukemic cells with lymphoid (SKW-3 and BV-173) or myeloid phenotype (HL-60, K-562, and LAMA-84), as well as against the EJ bladder carcinoma cell line. Bcr-Abl expressing myeloid cells (LAMA-84 and especially K-562) displayed lower sensitivity. HL-60/Dox cells were less sensitive to gypsogenic acid than the parent cell line, which shows that gypsogenic acid is probably a substrate of MRP-1.

Written by Ilina Krasteva

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Pyrostegia venusta heptane extract containing saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons induces apoptosis on B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells and displays antitumor activity in vivo

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Carlos R Figueiredo, Alisson L Matsuo, Felipe V Pereira, Aline N Rabaca, Camyla F Farias, Natalia Girola, Mariana H Massaoka, Ricardo A Azevedo, Jorge A.B Scutti, Denise C Arruda, Luciana P Silva, Elaine G Rodrigues, João Henrique G Lago, Luiz R Travassos, Regildo M.G Silva

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):363-376

Background: Pyrostegia venusta (Ker. Gawl.) Miers (Bignoniacea) is a medicinal plant from the Brazilian Cerrado used to treat leucoderma and common diseases of the respiratory system. Objective: To investigate the antitumor activity of P.venusta extracts against melanoma. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity and tumor induced cell death of heptane extract (HE) from P. venusta flowers was evaluated against murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells in vitro and in a syngeneic model in vivo. Results: We found that HE induced apoptosis in melanoma cells by disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, induction of reactive oxygen species and late apoptosis evidenced by plasma membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface and activation of caspase-2,-3,-8,-9. HE was also protective against singeneyc subcutaneous melanoma HE compounds were also able to induce cell cycle arrest at G2/M phases on tumor cells. On fractionation of HE in silica gel we isolated a cytotoxic fraction that contained a mixture of saturated hydrocarbons identified by 1 H NMR and GC-MS analyses. Predominant species were octacosane (C 28 H 58 -36%) and triacontane (C 30 H 62 -13%), which individually showed significant cytotoxic activity against murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells in vitro and a very promising antitumor protection against subcutaneous melanoma in vivo. Conclusion: The results suggest that the components of the heptane extract, mainly octasane and triacontane, which showed antitumor properties in experimental melanoma upon regional administration, might also be therapeutic in human cancer, such as in the mostly epidermal and slowly invasive melanomas, such as acral lentiginous melanoma, as an adjuvant treatment to surgical excision.

Written by Carlos R Figueiredo

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

An attempt to stabilize tanshinone IIA solid dispersion by the use of ternary systems with nano-CaCO 3 and poloxamer 188

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Hong-mei Yan, Zhen-hai Zhang, Yan-rong Jiang, Dong-mei Ding, E. Sun, Xiao-bin Jia

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):311-317

Background: Tanshinone IIA (TSIIA) on solid dispersions (SDs) has thermodynamical instability of amorphous drug. Ternary solid dispersions (tSDs) can extend the stability of the amorphous form of drug. Poloxamer 188 was used as a SD carrier. Nano-CaCO 3 played an important role in adsorption of biomolecules and is being developed for a host of biotechnological applications. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the dissolution behavior and accelerated stability of TSIIA on solid dispersions (SDs) by the use of ternary systems with nano-CaCO 3 and poloxamer 188. Materials and Methods: The TSIIA tSDs were prepared by a spray-drying method. First, the effect of combination of poloxamer 188 and nano-CaCO 3 on TSIIA dissolution was studied. Subsequently, a set of complementary techniques (DSC, XRPD, SEM and FTIR) was used to monitor the physical changes of TSIIA in the SDs. Finally, stability test was carried out under the conditions 40&#176;C/75% RH for 6 months. Results: The characterization of tSDs by differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) showed that TSIIA was present in its amorphous form. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) suggested the presence of interactions between TSIIA and carriers in tSDs. Improvement in the dissolution rate was observed for all SDs. The stability study conducted on SDs with nano-CaCO 3 showed stable drug content and dissolution behavior, over the period of 6 months as compared with freshly prepared SDs. Conclusion: SDs preparation with nano-CaCO 3 and poloxamer 188 may be a promising approach to enhance the dissolution and stability of TSIIA.

Written by Hong-mei Yan

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am