All about Pharmacognosy

All about Pharmacognosy

Archive for the ‘Antioxidant’ tag

In vitro Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Endophytic Extracts of Crotalaria pallida

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Research Article |

doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.11 ,
Published Online:

Abstract:
Introduction: The species Crotalaria pallida, which belongs to the Fabaceae family (Sub-family Faboideae), the members of which are herbs, shrubs and trees found in both temperate and tropical areas. All parts of the plants were incubated to know and isolate the endophytes. Antioxidants play an important role in protecting cellular damage by reactive oxygen species. Phenolic compounds from plants or endophytes have been reported to possess strong antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods: Four different endophytic fungi isolated from Crotalaria pallida were tested for various phytochemicals. Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum yielded the tannin, flavonoids, tepenoids, phenol and saponins from ethanol extract. All four different endophytic extracts were used to evaluated in vitro antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP method. Antioxidant compounds like total phenol and flavonoid were also determined. Results: The ethanol extracts of A. niger and F. oxysporum showed potent antioxidant activity against ABTS, FRAP and DPPH radicals with EC50. The total amount of phenol and flavonoid quantified were of 19.20, 19.23 gallic acid equivalent per gram of two endophytic fungi, A. niger and F. oxysporum and 7.25 and 6.41 μg/mg of quercetin equivalent respectively. Conclusions: The antioxidant potential may be directly linked to the phenolic compounds present in the endophytes, A. niger and F. oxysporum of Crotalaria pallida. The outcome of the present investigation clearly indicates that A. niger and F. oxysporum showed potential phytochemicals and they can used as antioxidants.

Keywords: Antioxidant, endophytic fungi, ABTS, FRAP, DPPH, Phenol

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Written by admin

October 25th, 2011 at 7:49 am

Assessment of Tumor Prevention in Type 1 Neurofibromatosis using a Nitroxide Compound

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Research Article |

doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.3 ,
Published Online:

Abstract:
Background: Type 1 Neurofibromatosis (NF1) is a genetic disorder linked to mutations of the NF1 gene. Clinical symptoms are varied, but hallmark features of the disease include skin pigmentation anomalies (café au lait macules, skinfold freckling) and dermal neurofibromas. Method: These dermal manifestations of NF1 have previously been reported in a mouse model where Nf1+/- mice are topically treated with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol- 13-acetate (TPA). We adopted this mouse model to test the protective effects of a nitroxide antioxidant, 5-carboxy-1,1,3,3- tetramethylisoindolin-2-yloxyl (CTMIO). Antioxidants have previously been shown to increase longevity in nf1-deficient fruitflies. Doses of 4μM and 40μM CTMIO provided ad libitum in drinking water were given to Nf1-deficient mice. Results: Consistent with previous reports, Nf1-deficient mice showed a 4.7-fold increase in papilloma formation (P < 0.036). However, neither dose of CTMIO had any significant affect on papilloma formation. A non-significant decrease in skin pigmentation abnormalities was seen with 4μM but not 40μM CTMIO. Subsequent analysis of genomic DNA isolated from papillomas indicated that DMBA/TPA induced tumors did not exhibit a local loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the Nf1 locus. Conclusion: These data reveal that oral antioxidant therapy with CTMIO does not reduce tumor formation in a multistage cancer model, but also that this model does not feature LOH for Nf1.

Keywords: neurofibromatosis type 1, tumorigenesis, papillomas, antioxidant, nitroxide

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Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology Vol 186)

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By : Donald Armstrong

Book Description:

Donald Armstrong updates and expands his highly praised Free Radical and Antioxidant Protocols (Humana, 1998) with a collection of new and valuable methods for evaluating the pertubations in cell function resulting from increased oxidative stress. Presented in a user-friendly, step-by-step format, these readily reproducible techniques cover both free radical-derived and antioxidant biomarkers. The methodologies demonstrated include ELISA, HPLC, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, immunoblotting, electroelution fractionation, isoelectric focusing, voltametry, and electron paramagnetic resonance imaging. Special emphasis is given to the separation of complex mixtures of plant antioxidants, soft drug design to protect from toxic oxidative metabolites, in vitro oxidation conditions, and correcting for random measurement error to improve statistical interpretation. A soon-to-be-published companion volume, Oxidants and Antioxidants: Ultrastructural and Molecular Biology Protocols (0-89603-851-3), contains state-of-the-art molecular and ultrastructural methods that expand the total number of protocols to 109 assays.

  • Publisher: Humana Press
  • Number Of Pages: 336
  • Publication Date: 2002-02-15
  • Sales Rank: 1695348
  • ISBN / ASIN: 0896038505
  • EAN: 9780896038509
  • Binding: Hardcover
  • Manufacturer: Humana Press
  • Studio: Humana Press

Written by najib

May 28th, 2011 at 6:30 am

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Spices: Flavor Chemistry and Antioxidant Properties (Acs Symposium Series)

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By : Sara J. Risch, Chi-Tang Ho

Provides a general overview of spice chemistry. Discusses the characterization, extraction, and intensity of flavors. Identifies the flavor components and antioxidant properties of specific spices. Includes methods for identifying specific spices in blends and proving authenticity of spices. Discusses the antioxidant properties of spices with emphasis on potential health benefits of these spices.

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May 28th, 2011 at 6:14 am

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The antioxidant vitamins C and E

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By : Lester Packer

The proceedings of a March 2002 symposium at the World Congress of the Oxygen Club, in Santa Barbara, California present 19 papers reporting recent findings about the body’s two major dietary antioxidants. Introductory papers on each trace the history of research on them. Other topics include vitamin C pharmacokinetics in healthy men and women, potential adverse effects, the ongoing controversy about the bioavailability and biopotency of vitamin E in humans, and prospects for disease prevention and therapy. Annotation (c)2003 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Written by najib

May 28th, 2011 at 6:09 am

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