All about Pharmacognosy

All about Pharmacognosy

Archive for May, 2014

Quantification of allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-ultrasonic sound and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves

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Sankhadip Bose, Bibek Laha, Subhasis Banerjee

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):288-293

Background: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been accepted universally to be applied in food, spice and traditional medicine. The medicinal and other beneficial properties of garlic are attributed to organosulfur compounds. Objective: As of today no simultaneous analysis has been performed; hence the transformation of allicin to its degraded products during cultivation and storage is open into doubt. Materials and Methods: In our present work, we have tried to develop a sensitive and reproducible analytical method to measure allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-acoustic waves and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves. Results: The process revealed the effect of different radiation techniques on fresh garlic retains the principle component, allicin in its pure form and generated higher yield than the conventional way of extraction. Conclusion: Therefore, materializing these techniques in the pharmaceutical industry will definitely be proved beneficial in term of time as well as money. Most interestingly, the methods ruled out possibilities of degradation of organosulfur compounds as well.

Written by Sankhadip Bose

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Dietary supplementation of chloroquine with nigella sativa seed and oil extracts in the treatment of malaria induced in mice with plasmodium berghei

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Promise Madu Emeka, Lorina Ineta Badger-Emeka, Chiamaka Maryann Eneh, Tahir Mahmood Khan

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):357-362

Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary combination of Nigella sativa seed and oil extracts with chloroquine (CQ), and how these combinations enhance CQ efficacy in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and their survival rates. Materials and Methods: Chloroquine sensitive P. berghei, NK65 strain was used for the study. This was passaged intraperitoneally into albino mice with a 0.2ml standard inoculum consisting of 10 6 parasitized erythrocyte suspension in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Parasitaemia was ascertained by microscopical examination of blood films under oil immersion at X100 magnification. Results: Nigella sativa seed in feed (NSSF), NSSF + CQ on day 4, produced 86.1% and 86.0% suppression respectively, while Nigella sativa oil extract in feed (NSOF) and in combination with CQ had 86.0% and 99.9% suppression respectively. The degree of suppression with the combination was significantly higher compared to CQ alone (P < 0.001) (36.1%). Complete parasitaemia clearance was obtained on the 20 th and 15 th day of treatment for NSSF, NSSF + CQ respectively, while that for NSOF and NSOF + CQ was on days 26 and 12 respectively. For CQ parasite clearance was 12 days with treatment. Also, the combinastion of 10 mg/kg Nigella sativa oil treatment injected intraperitoneally with oral CQ produced very significant parasite suppression (P < 0.0001) (93%). Survival rate in NSSF and NSOF and in combination with CQ groups was 100 and 60.0% for CQ alone. Conclusion : sThis study shows that the use of Nigella sativa seed and oil extract as dietary supplements in combination with CQ has a potential in enhancing the efficacy of CQ and could be of benefit in management of malaria.

Written by Promise Madu Emeka

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Pharmacodynamic studies on the isolated active fraction of Acacia farnesiana (L.) willd

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Bino Kingsley, Saminathan Kayarohanam, Pemaiah Brindha, Appian Subramoniam

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):283-287

Background: Acacia farnesiana is a medicinal plant that grows throughout tropical parts of Indian subcontinent, particularly in sandy soils of river beds in Northern India. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic activity of the extracts using glucose tolerance test. Isolation of an active fraction (AF) from the active extract (water extract) using alcohol precipitation and to get insight to the mechanism of action of the AF of A. farnesiana. Materials and Methods: Glucose uptake by isolated rat diaphragm of the AF was performed. Further the effect of release of Insulin from isolated and cultured pancreatic &#946;-cell was determined. Besides, effect of oral administration of the AF was compared with that of intraperitonial administration. The effect of AF on serum glucose levels in orally glucose loaded rats was compared with that of intraperitoneal glucose loaded rats. Results: The water extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level. When precipitated with alcohol, the activity was found in the soluble fraction. Glucose uptake in the isolated rat hemidiaphragm, was increased by the AF at 40 &#956;g/ml concentration, the AF did not significantly influence insulin release from cultured islets. The AF was found to be effective in orally glucose loaded in contrast to intraperitonial route. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that this plant is promising for further studies leading to the development of valuable medicine for diabetes.

Written by Bino Kingsley

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Two novel antifungals, acornine 1 and acornine 2, from the bark of mangrove plant Aegiceras corniculatum (Linn.) Blanco from Sundarban Estuary

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Vinod K. Gupta, Kalishankar Mukherjee, Amit Roy

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):342-349

Background: Microbes have been implicated in a wide variety of human diseases many of which are of life-threatening nature. New antimicrobials are urgently needed not only for combating these organisms but also to counter the menace of the harmful microbes developing resistance against drugs at alarming rates. Mangrove plants are rich sources of secondary metabolites having many beneficial biological activities including antimicrobial ones. True to this fact, this report describes identification, isolation and partial characterization of two novel antifungal compounds from Aegiceras corniculatum, a mangrove plant from Indian Sundarban estuary. Materials and Methods: Two compounds, named as Acornine 1 and Acornine 2, having antifungal activities were isolated from the bark of A. corniculatum, a mangrove plant, by using standard techniques. The compounds were characterized using routine microbiological and physicochemical methods. Results: Partial structural characterization of the two compounds indicated they are oleanane triterpenoids with linked sugar moieties. While both the compounds exhibited growth inhibition in tested Gram positive bacteria, Acornine 2 in particular demonstrated strong antifungal activities against several pathogenic fungi tested. Results also indicated that various environmental factors may govern the secondary metabolite profiles of the same mangrove plants growing in different geographical areas. Conclusion: Tissue extracts of Aegiceras corniculatum, a mangrove plant from Indian Sundarban estuary, exhibited the presence of remarkable antifungal activities. The isolated compounds responsible for such activities, named as Acornine 1 and Acornine 2, appear to have potential in food processing and health care industry. They need to be studied further.

Written by Vinod K. Gupta

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Anti-cholinesterase activity of the standardized extract of Syzygium aromaticum L.

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Manoj K. Dalai, Santanu Bhadra, Sushil K. Chaudhary, Arun Bandyopadhyay, Pulok K. Mukherjee

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):276-282

Background: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is a well-known culinary spice with strong aroma; contains a high amount of oil known as clove oil. The major phyto-constituent of the clove oil is eugenol. Clove and its oil possess various medicinal uses in indigenous medicine as an antiseptic, anti-oxidant, analgesic and neuroprotective properties. Thus, it draws much attention among researchers from pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-cholinesterase activity of the methanol extract of clove, its oil and eugenol. Materials and Methods: In vitro anti-cholinesterase activity of S. aromaticum was performed by a thin layer chromatography bio autography, 96 well micro titer plate and kinetic methods. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis was carried out to identify the biomarker compound eugenol in clove oil. Results: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition study revealed that eugenol possess better inhibition of the enzymes than extract and oil. Clove extract, its oil and eugenol showed better inhibition of AChE than BChE. Polyphenolic compound eugenol was detected through RP-HPLC analysis. The content of eugenol in essential oil was found to be 0.5 &#956;g/ml. Kinetic analysis of the cholinesterase inhibition study of the extract; clove oil and eugenol have shown that they possess mixed type of inhibition for AChE and non-competitive type of inhibition for BChE. Conclusion: These results might be useful in explaining the effect of clove as anti-cholinesterase agent for the management of cognitive ailments like Alzheimer's disease.

Written by Manoj K. Dalai

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Isolation and identification of cytotoxic compounds from the rhizomes of Paris quadrifolia L.

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Jerzy Gajdus, Zbigniew Kaczynski, Anna Kawiak, Ewa Lojkowska, Justyna Stefanowicz-Hajduk, J. Renata Ochocka, Piotr Stepnowski

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):324-333

Background: Paris quadrifolia L. is a medicinal plant which contains steroidal saponins. The present study reports isolation and structural identification of six pennogenyl saponins obtained from P. quadrifolia rhizomes. The four spirostan saponins were obtained from P. quadrifolia for the first time. The cytotoxic effects of the sub-fractions and six compounds isolated from the plant extract were evaluated on tumour cells. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract from the rhizomes of P. quadrifolia were partinioned using column chromatography. The saponins were isolated from the obtained sub-fractions by isocratic RP HPLC and their structures were determined by means of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and MALDI TOF MS. The cytotoxic effects of the sub-fractions and the isolated compounds were tested against human promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL-60), human cervical adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa) and human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) using the [(3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: Six pennogenyl saponins were isolated from P. quadrifolia rhizomes: pennogenin 3-O-&#946;-D-glucopyranoside (1), pennogenin 3-O-&#945;-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1&#8594; 4)-&#946;-D-glucopyranoside (2), pennogenin 3-O-&#945;-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1&#8594; 2)-&#946;-D-glucopyranoside (3), pennogenin 3-O-&#945;-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1&#8594; 4)-&#945;-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1&#8594; 4)-&#946;-D-glucopyranoside (4), pennogenin 3-O-&#945;-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1&#8594; 4)-[&#945;-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1&#8594; 2)]-&#946;-D-glucopyranoside (5), pennogenin 3-O-&#945;-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1&#8594; 4)-&#945;-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1&#8594; 4)-[&#945;-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1&#8594; 2)]-&#946;-D-glucopyranoside (6). Pennogenyl saponins 5 and 6 exhibited cytotoxic activity against HL-60, HeLa and MCF-7 tumour cells with IC 50 values of 1.0 &#177; 0.04 &#956;g/ml, 1.8 &#177; 0.072 &#956;g/ml and 2.4 &#177; 0.096 &#956;g/ml respectively, and 2.0 &#177; 0.08 &#956;g/ml, 2.5 &#177; 0.125 &#956;g/ml and 3.2 &#177; 0.128 &#956;g/ml respectively. Conclusion: Compounds 1 -4 were isolated from this species for the first time.

Written by Jerzy Gajdus

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Inhibitory effects of ginseng seed on melanin biosynthesis

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Yeonmi Lee, Kyoung-Tack Kim, Sung Soo Kim, Jinyoung Hur, Sang Keun Ha, Chang-Won Cho, Sang Yoon Choi

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):272-275

Background: Ginseng root has been traditionally used for the treatment of many diseases in Korea. However, so far ginseng seed has been mostly unused and discarded. As part of our ongoing research on the ginseng seeds, the inhibitory effect of ginseng seeds on melanin production was verified to assess their potential as a skin depigmenting substance. Materials and Methods: The present study measured the inhibitory effect of ginseng seeds on melanin production through the tyrosinase inhibitory effect and analyzed their effects on melanin production in melan-a-cells. Results: Ethanol extract of ginseng seed was applied to melan-a-cells at a concentration of 100 ppm and melanin production was reduced by 35.1% without cytotoxicity. In addition, the ethanol extract of ginseng seed was shown to reduce tyrosinase activity. Conclusion: Because the results showed excellent melanin inhibitory activity compared with that obtained by arbutin, ethanol extracts of ginseng leaf and ginseng root at the same concentration, it can be concluded that ginseng seeds show great potential as a skin depigmenting substance.

Written by Yeonmi Lee

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Revisiting "Vegetables" to combat modern epidemic of imbalanced glucose homeostasis

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Ashok Kumar Tiwari

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):207-213

Vegetables have been part of human food since prehistoric times and are considered nutritionally necessary and good for health. Vegetables are rich natural resource of biological antioxidants and possess capabilities of maintaining glucose homeostasis. When taken before starch-rich diet, juice also of vegetables such as ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd, chayote and juice of leaves of vegetables such as radish, Indian Dill, ajwain, tropical green amaranth, and bladder dock are reported to arrest significantly the rise in postprandial blood glucose level. Juice of vegetables such as ash gourd, squash gourd, and tropical green amaranth leaves are observed to tone-down sweet-beverages such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion. On the other hand, juice of egg-plant and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and palak are reported to augment starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion; and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and radish supplement to the glucose-induced postprandial glycemia. Vegetables possess multifaceted antihyperglycemic activities such as inhibition of pancreatic &#945;-amylase and intestinal &#945;-glucosidase, inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1&#946; in liver and skeletal muscles, and insulin mimetic and secretagogue activities. Furthermore, they are also reported to influence polyol pathway in favor of reducing development of oxidative stress, and consequently the development of diabetic complications. In the wake of emergence of modern maladaptive diet-induced hyperglycemic epidemic therefore, vegetables may offer cost-effective dietary regimen to control diet-induced glycemic over load and future development of diabetes mellitus. However, for vegetables have been reported to do both, mitigate as well as supplement to the diet-induced postprandial glycemic load, care is required in selection of vegetables when considered as medicament.

Written by Ashok Kumar Tiwari

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Molecular docking studies of flavonoids for their inhibition pattern against β-catenin and pharmacophore model generation from experimentally known flavonoids to fabricate more potent inhibitors for Wnt signaling pathway

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Hira Iftikhar, Sajid Rashid

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):264-271

Background: Canonical Wnt signaling plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, which correlates with the accumulation of &#946;-catenin in cell due to inactivation of glycogen synthetase kinase-3 &#946;. However, uncontrolled expression of &#946;-catenin leads to fibromatosis, sarcoma and mesenchymal tumor formation. Recently, a number of polyphenolic compounds of naturally occurring flavonoid family have been screened for the inhibition of Wnt signaling. Objective: Elucidation of the binding mode of inhibitors to &#946;-catenin, reporting more potent inhibitors for the disease-causing protein and designing a pharmacophore model based on naturally occurring compounds, flavonoids. Materials and Methods: In this study, a comparative molecular docking analysis was performed to elucidate the binding mode of experimentally reported and unknown inhibitors. Based on the knowledge of geometry, binding affinity and drug score, we described a subset of novel inhibitors. Results: The binding energy of known inhibitors (isorhamnetin, fisetin, genistein and silibinin) was observed in a range of &#8722;5.68 to &#8722;4.98 kcal/mol, while novel inhibitors (catechin, luteolin, coumestrol and &#946;-naphthoflavone) exhibited &#8722;6.50 to &#8722;5.22 kcal/mol. We observed good placement and strong interactions of selected compounds inside the binding pocket of &#946;-catenin. Moreover, flavonoid family members and T cell factors 4 (TCF4) compete for &#946;-catenin binding by sharing common binding residues. Conclusion: This study will largely help in understanding the molecular basis of &#946;-catenin/TCF4 inhibition through flavonoids by exploring their structural details. Finally, the novel inhibitors proposed in this study need further attention to uncover cancer treatment and with the generated pharmacophore model, more and potent &#946;-catenin inhibitors can be easily screened.

Written by Hira Iftikhar

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Effect of ultrasound on the isoflavonoid production in Genista tinctoria L. suspension cultures

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Lenka Tumova, Jiri Tuma, Helena Hendrychova

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):425-429

Background: Application of ultrasound (US) to biotechnology is relatively new but several processes that take place in the presence of cells or enzymes are activated by ultrasonic waves. Genista tinctoria L. (Fabaceae) is rich on various kind of flavonoids, including isoflavones with valuable estrogenic activity. Objective: This study verified use of low-energy US elicitor to enhance secondary metabolite production in plant cell cultures. Materials and Methods: Suspension cultures of G. tinctoria cells was exposed to low-power US (with fixed frequency 35 kHz and power level 0.1 mW/cm 3 ) for period 1-5 min. Results: The US exposure significantly stimulated genistin content (0.8 mg/g DW) after 3 min of US treatment (sampled after 72 h). The highest daidzein level (1.4 mg/g DW) was reached after US irradiation for 5 min and 168 h sampling. Conclusion: The achieved results suggest that US can act as a potent abiotic elicitor to induce the defense responses of plant cells and to stimulate secondary metabolite production in plant cell cultures.

Written by Lenka Tumova

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am