All about Pharmacognosy

All about Pharmacognosy

Archive for October, 2011

Attenuation of Oxidative Damage in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits Following Administration of the Extract of the Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina.

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.13 ,
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Abstract:
Introduction: Diabetes is a disease that constitutes multiple sources of free radicals, thus oxidative stress is expected to have a double impact. Since oxidative stress is mediated by hyperglycemia-induced generation of free radical, it is supposed that compounds with hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties would be useful antidiabetic agents. Our study investigated the use of V. amygdalina as a potential hypoglycemic and antioxidative agent by testing its effect on the antioxidant biomarkers and lipid peroxidation. Methods: Dried leaves of V. amgydalina were extracted for 48 hrs and freeze dried. Acute toxicity was investigated in 25 rats. Thirty six rabbits were divided into 6 groups: groups I – III were normal; diabetes was induced in groups (IV – VI). Groups I and IV were normal and diabetic controls respectively. The animals were treated with aqueous leaf extract of V. amygdalina. Blood samples were collected and used for the study. Results: The reduction in body weight in the diabetic groups was regained following administration of the extract of V. amgydalina. The extract is considered safe and had little or no effect on blood glucose, MDA and GSH levels of the normal rabbits. Extract significantly reduced glucose and MDA concentrations but increased GSH levels in the diabetic rabbits. Similarly, the extract had no effect on the activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in normal rabbits, however in diabetic rabbits, the enzymes activities increased dose-dependently. Conclusion: This finding provides basis for the use of V. amgydalina as potential antidiabetic antioxidant agent and may be useful for its hypoglycemic property.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Free radical, lipid peroxidation, Oxidative stress, Vernonia amygdalina.

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Radical Scavenging and Antioxidant Activity of Carthamus tinctorius Extracts

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.12 ,
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Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation, protein peroxidation, and DNA damage. It has been reported that numerous plant extracts have antioxidant activities to scavenge free radicals. In the present study, we examines the in vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of Crude extract of Carthamus tinctorius by using different in vitro analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging by riboflavin–methionine-illuminate system. Also, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol were used as the reference antioxidant radical scavenger compounds. Extract inhibited 94.50% lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 20 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, the above mentioned standard antioxidants indicated an inhibition of 93.75%, 96.66% and 83.33% on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 60 μg/mL concentration, respectively. In addition, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, DPPH scavenging, ABTS+ radical scavenging and superoxide anion radical scavenging. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol as references antioxidant compounds. The present study shows that Extract is the effective natural antioxidant component.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity; scavenging activity, free radical, Carthamus tinctorius.

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October 25th, 2011 at 7:52 am

In vitro Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Endophytic Extracts of Crotalaria pallida

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.11 ,
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Introduction: The species Crotalaria pallida, which belongs to the Fabaceae family (Sub-family Faboideae), the members of which are herbs, shrubs and trees found in both temperate and tropical areas. All parts of the plants were incubated to know and isolate the endophytes. Antioxidants play an important role in protecting cellular damage by reactive oxygen species. Phenolic compounds from plants or endophytes have been reported to possess strong antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods: Four different endophytic fungi isolated from Crotalaria pallida were tested for various phytochemicals. Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum yielded the tannin, flavonoids, tepenoids, phenol and saponins from ethanol extract. All four different endophytic extracts were used to evaluated in vitro antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP method. Antioxidant compounds like total phenol and flavonoid were also determined. Results: The ethanol extracts of A. niger and F. oxysporum showed potent antioxidant activity against ABTS, FRAP and DPPH radicals with EC50. The total amount of phenol and flavonoid quantified were of 19.20, 19.23 gallic acid equivalent per gram of two endophytic fungi, A. niger and F. oxysporum and 7.25 and 6.41 μg/mg of quercetin equivalent respectively. Conclusions: The antioxidant potential may be directly linked to the phenolic compounds present in the endophytes, A. niger and F. oxysporum of Crotalaria pallida. The outcome of the present investigation clearly indicates that A. niger and F. oxysporum showed potential phytochemicals and they can used as antioxidants.

Keywords: Antioxidant, endophytic fungi, ABTS, FRAP, DPPH, Phenol

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October 25th, 2011 at 7:49 am

Free Radical Scavenging and Anti-lipid Peroxidative Effects of a Hydro-ethanolic Extract of the Whole Plant of Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn (Asteraceae)

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Research Article |

doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.10 ,
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Background: Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn. (Asteraceae), a native Ghanaian shrub, has been used for the treatment of epilepsy, hiccup and threatened abortion. The present study aimed at investigating the possible mechanisms of antioxidant effects of the hydro-ethanolic extract of the whole plant. Methods: Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin- Ciocalteau assay and the antioxidant capacity by the phosphomolybdenum method. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assays, reducing power assay and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and lipid peroxidation in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- kindled rat brains. Results: The extract (0.1-3.0 mg ml-1) was found to contain phenolic compounds which could be responsible for the antioxidant properties since the coefficient of correlation between the Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) was high (r2 = 0.9908). Both n-propyl gallate (0.001-0.03 mg ml-1), a reference antioxidant and the extract (0.1-3 mg ml-1) exhibited antioxidant properties by reducing Fe3+ to Fe2+ in the reducing power test, scavenged DPPH free radicals and effectively inhibited linoleic acid autoxidation and also inhibited lipid peroxidation in PTZ-kindled rat brains. Conclusions:These findings suggest that hydro-ethanolic extract of Synedrella nodiflora contains antioxidant principles which may contribute to its traditional use in epilepsy management.

Keywords: Synedrella nodiflora, antioxidant, linoleic acid, autoxidation, n-propyl gallate, phosphomolybdenum, Folin-Ciocalteau, DPPH.

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October 25th, 2011 at 7:45 am

Phytochemical Screening and In-vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaves of Sesbania sesban (L) Merr.

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Research Article |

doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.9 ,
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Introduction: Antioxidants are micronutrients that have gained importance in recent years due to their ability to neutralize free radicals or their actions. Sesbania sesban (L) Merr is an ancient plant which is traditionally used as an antioxidant folklore plant. The present research deals with the phytochemical screening and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of the leaves of Sesbania sesban (L) Merr. Methods: The ethanolic extract of the plant Sesbania sesban (L) Merr was subjected for the phytochemical screening. The preliminary screening reports the presence of Saponin, Tanin, Phenolic compound, Flavonoid in ethanolic extracts. DPPH scavenging activity or the Hydrogen donating capacity was quantified in presence of stable DPPH radical on the basis of Blois method. NO scavenging activity was performed in the presence of nitric oxide was generated from sodium nitroprusside and measured by the Greiss reaction according to the method of Marcocci. Ascorbic acid was used as standard for the both. Results: The scavenging was found to dose dependent. Thus extract has been established the as an antioxidant. The reducing capacity serves as significant indicator of antioxidant activity. The reducing power increased with the increasing concentration of sample. Conclusion: The folklore use of Sesbania sesban (L)Merr has been proved in present research work. Further studies along with isolation and molecular mechanism on extract of Sesbania sesban (L) Merr may lead to significant out come.

Keywords: Sesbania sesban (L) Merr, DPPH scavenging activity, NO scavenging activity, Ascorbic acid, Phytochemical screening

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Antiproliferative Effect of Antioxidative Free and Bound Phenolics from Andrographis serpyllifolia

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.8 ,
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Background: Andrographis serpyllifolia, used as a medicinal plant in traditional practices in India, where in cancer patients are treated using the leaves of A. serpyllifolia. The crude extracts of A. serpyllifolia not only contain a wide variety of phenolic compounds but also show an excellent antioxidant activity. Therefore, this plant might be a good candidate for further development for its antioxidant remedies. However, the biological activities of the phenolic extracts of A. serpyllifolia on cancer have not been studied to date. Objective: To investigate the antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of the phenolics of A. serpyllifolia. Materials and methods: Free and (ASFP) and bound (ASBP) phenolics of A. serpyllifolia were isolated and determined antioxidant and antiproliferative abilities that are required for anticancer properties. Results: Individual phenolic constituents present in each of these fractions and their precise contribution to both antioxidant and antiproliferative activities were determined to justify the traditionally observed result of anticancer properties. Treatment of HeLa cells with ASFP and ASBP showed antiproliferative activity with increased malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH). The present experimental data suggest that components within the ASFP may have inherent properties that suppress cancer cell proliferation. The phenolic fractions were also screened for their potential antioxidant activities using DPPH, reducing power, DNA protection, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls model systems. ASFP exhibited highest antioxidant activity in all the model systems employed to study antioxidant activity. The positive correlation between polyphenolic content of A. serpyllifolia to its antioxidant activity was seen. Conclusion: Potent antiproliferative and DNA protective activity of ASFP and ASBP may contribute significantly against cancer pathogenesis.

Keywords: Antioxidant; Antiproliferative; Glutathione; Malondialdehyde; Phenolic fractions

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October 25th, 2011 at 7:37 am

Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans

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Research Article |

doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.7 ,
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Natural polyphenols, gallic acid, tannic acid, quercetin and salicylic acid, were investigated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities against Streptococcus mutans. Ascorbic acid, well known for its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, was used as a criterion for the polyphenols. The antimicrobial effect was assessed using the plate dilution assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each polyphenol was then determined from the antimicrobial activity results. Salicylic acid was the weakest antimicrobial with the highest MIC (3.8 mg/mL), and tannic acid was the strongest antimicrobial with the lowest MIC of 0.4 mg/mL. Antioxidant capacities were evaluated using the DMPD and ABTS decolorizing assays. These polyphenols show high antimicrobial activity and inoxidizability. Antioxidant activity for quercetin according to the DMPD method was inconclusive because it had color interference with the DMPD radicals. Although some conflicting results were observed between the DMPD and ABTS methods, the polyphenols with high antioxidant capacities still showed high antimicrobial activities, which suggest that the antioxidant capacity attributes to the antimicrobial effects.

Keywords: ABTS method, DMPD method, MIC

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October 25th, 2011 at 7:33 am

Electrophilic, Free Radical and Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Detoxification Potentials of Lophiraalata Stem Bark Extract

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.6 ,
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The electrophilic, free radical and reactive oxygen species scavenging and detoxification potentials of Lophiraalata stem bark was evaluated. L. alata stem bark effectively scavenged DPPH radical, superoxideion and hydrogen peroxide. It produced 88% scavenging effect of DPPH radical at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ml. Aqueous extract of L. alata-stem bark produced 76% and 92% scavenging effect on superoxide ion and hydrogen peroxide respectively at 1.0 mg/ml, which compared favourably with the synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroanisole and α-tocopherol). A reducing power of L. alata stem bark was examined using K3Fe(CN)6, 2-folds reducing power potentials was exhibited by L. alata stem bark when compared with the synthetic antioxidant,butylated hydroanisole. Reactive oxygen species detoxify enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRed) were significantly induced by 90, 133, 90 and 172% respectively. While the electrophilic detoxifying enzymes NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), uridyl diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT), glutathione S- transferase (GST) and epoxide hydrolase (EPh)) were induced by 240, 81, 196 and 281% respectively at the end of the experimental period. In view of these properties, L. alata can act as a prophylactic by intervening as electrophilic, free radical and ROS scavenger and detoxifier.

Keywords: Lophiraalata, reactive oxygen species, free radicals and electrophile detoxifying enzymes

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Under Increased Hydrogen Peroxide Conditions, the Antioxidant Effects of Pequi Oil (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) to Decrease DNA Damage in Runners are Influenced by Sex, Age and Oxidative Stress-related Genetic Polymorphisms

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.5 ,
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Context: Exhausting exercise, increasing reactive oxygen species, can overwhelm the endogenous antioxidant system’s capacity, resulting in oxidative damage to DNA. Deficient antioxidant defenses, influenced by certain genetic polymorphisms, may contribute. Aims: We aimed to investigate whether carotenoid-rich oil from pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) could decrease DNA damage in athletes submitted to increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) conditions and in those less genetically favored by antioxidant defenses. Methods and Material: Runners’ blood (N = 125) was analyzed after races under the same environment, type, intensity and length of weekly training conditions, before and after 14 days of pequi-oil supplementation. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay before and after H2O2 exposure, with gene polymorphisms of MnSOD Val9Ala, CAT –21A/T, GPx-1 Pro198Leu, del{GSTM1}, del{GSTT1}, ACE and Haptoglobin. Results: Without additional oxidative stress imposed by H2O2, pequi oil was particularly efficient reducing DNA damage for women, age group of 20-40 years, distance of 8-10 Km and genotypes MnSOD Val/Ala, CAT TT, GPx-1 Pro/Leu, GSTM1 null, GSTT1 non-null, ACE DD and II and Hp1F-2. For treatment with H2O2at 0.25 mM, pequi oil resulted in decreased DNA damage only for running 16-21 Km; for treatment with 1 mM, decrease was for 20-40 years and genotypes GPx-1 Pro/Pro and ACE ID. Conclusions: Pequi oil’s effect on exercise-induced DNA damage was therefore influenced by sex, age and genetic polymorphisms, indicating that: long-distance races can be harmful, mainly for older athletes, due to oxidative stress above organism adaptability; genotypes showed different responses; under increased H2O2 conditions, GPx-1 Pro/Pro and ACE ID genotypes were more responsive to antioxidant supplementation.

Keywords: reactive oxygen species; hydrogen peroxide; exercise-induced oxidative stress; exercise-induced DNA damage; comet assay; gene polymorphisms related to oxidative stress

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Superoxide Dismutase Ameliorates the Bowel Alterations Induced by Diabetes Mellitus – An Experimental Study

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.4 ,
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Introduction: The gastrointestinal system is frequently affected in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Some of these alterations are due to oxidative stress and the production of free radicals. The present study was designed to evaluate whether treatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) exerts protection on established bowel alterations in experimental diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin. We measured the lipid peroxidation, the superoxide dismutase activity and the DNA damage. Materials and Methods: We used the anorectal pressure to evaluate the nitrosative stress and used an inflammatory score to measure the macroscopic and microscopic bowel alterations. Results: The oxidative stress and the DNA damage was elevated in DM group and reduced with the SOD administration. The use of SOD also ameliorates the inflammatory bowel alterations and the anorectal pressure. Conclusion: SOD administration showed beneficial effects in all parameters of large bowel alterations in DM rats.

Keywords: oxidative stress; diabetes; superoxide dismutase

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