All about Pharmacognosy

All about Pharmacognosy

Archive for October, 2010

Chemical constituents of Asparagus

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JS Negi, P Singh, GP Joshi, MS Rawat, VK Bisht

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2010 4(8):215-220

Asparagus species (family Liliaceae) are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given.

Written by JS Negi

October 7th, 2010 at 12:00 am

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Hygrophila spinosa : A comprehensive review

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AD Kshirsagar, KG Ingale, NS Vyawahare, VS Thorve

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2010 4(8):167-171

Hygrophila spinosa T Ander, belonging to the family Acanthaceae, is a promising medicinal plant with great economic potential. The medicinal value of H. spinosa has been appreciated in the ancient medical literature. The plant contains terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, and is traditionally known as an aphrodisiac, renal tonic, and for its health-promoting properties. The plant is cultivated throughout India. However, systematic information on the different aspects of this species is not available. In this review, an attempt has been made to present this information.

Written by AD Kshirsagar

October 7th, 2010 at 12:00 am

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Crocus sativus L.: A comprehensive review

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R Srivastava, H Ahmed, RK Dixit, Dharamveer , SA Saraf

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2010 4(8):200-208

Crocus sativus L. belonging to the family Iridaceae (syn – kesar) comprises the dried red stigma and is widely cultivated in Iran and other countries such as India and Greece. Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds mainly terpenes, terpene alcohol, and their esters. The bitter taste and an iodoform or hay-like fragrance are caused by chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. C. sativus possesses a number of medicinally important activities such as antihypertensive, anticonvulsant, antitussive, antigenototoxic and cytotoxic effects, anxiolytic aphrodisiac, antioxidant, antidepressant, antinociceptive , anti-inflammatory, and relaxant activity. It also improves memory and learning skills, and increases blood flow in retina and choroid. The present review explores the historical background, chemical constituents, pharmacological actions, uses, substitutes and adulterants, and toxicity. It also deals with its evaluation, formulations, and chemical tests in detail.

Written by R Srivastava

October 7th, 2010 at 12:00 am

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A review on Cressa cretica Linn.: A halophytic plant

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S Priyashree, S Jha, SP Pattanayak

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2010 4(8):161-166

Herbal medicine is used by up to 80% of the population in developing countries. Cressa cretica L. is a popular holophytic plant and is used in folklore medicine for ailments including diabetes, ulcers, asthma, anthelmintic, stomachic, tonic and aphrodisiac purposes, enriches the blood, and is useful in constipation, leprosy, and urinary discharges. The plant is traditionally used in Bahrain as expectorant and antibilious agent. Scientific evidence suggests its versatile biological functions East Inflatable Rentalssuch as its antibacterial, antifungal, antitussive, anticancer with some other plants, anti-inflammatory, and improving testicular function in rats. In this article, a comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotany, and biological activities are included in view of the recent findings of importance on the plant, C. cretica.

Written by S Priyashree

October 7th, 2010 at 12:00 am

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The genus Gelsemium: An update

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V Dutt, S Thakur, VJ Dhar, A Sharma

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2010 4(8):185-194

The review includes 103 references on the genus Gelsemium, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Gelsemium. Alkaloids and iridoids constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. Most popular species of the genus are the Asian G. elegans and the two North American related species, G. sempervirens and G. rankinii. Gelsemium species are categorized under medicinal as well as poisonous plants. Amongst various species, G. elegans and G. sempervirens possess medicinal value, and have been traditionally used as nervous system relaxant. These plants have been explored exhaustively for their anticancer activity. In the concluding part, the future scope of Gelsemium species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of actions

Written by V Dutt

October 7th, 2010 at 12:00 am

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Pistia stratiotes (Jalkumbhi)

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P Tripathi, R Kumar, AK Sharma, A Mishra, R Gupta

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2010 4(8):153-160

Pistia stratiotes (Family: Araceae) is commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine. This review article is a compilation of all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed by different methods. Studies indicate that P. stratiotes possesses diuretic, antidiabetic, antidermatophytic, antifungal, and antimicrobial properties. These results are very encouraging and indicate that this plant should be studied more extensively to confirm the reproducibility of these results and also to reveal other potential therapeutic effects, along with some “leads” with possible isolation of active biomoieties and their mechanism of action.

Written by P Tripathi

October 7th, 2010 at 12:00 am

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Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) sweet: A comprehensive review

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VJ Galani, BG Patel, NB Patel

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2010 4(8):172-178

Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. This plant is pharmacologically studied for nootropic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant.

Written by VJ Galani

October 7th, 2010 at 12:00 am

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Erythrina variegata Linn: A review on morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects

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A Kumar, S Lingadurai, A Jain, NR Barman

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2010 4(8):147-152

This review gives an account of the current knowledge on the morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of Erythrina variegata. E. variegata also called Erythrina indica is a thorny deciduous tree growing to 60 feet tall. A wide range of chemical compounds have been isolated, mainly alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and lectin. Different parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine as nervine sedative, collyrium in opthalmia, antiasthmatic, antiepileptic, antiseptic, and as an astringent. The alkaloids extracted from the leaves of E. variegata are reported to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Isoflavonoids isolated from E. variegata having antibacterial and anthelmintic activity. E. variegata shows several other characteristic pharmacological effects like neuromuscular blocking, smooth muscle relaxant, CNS depressant, and hydrocholeretic, which are consistent with the reported uses of the plant extracts in the indigenous system of medicine Aufblasbare Hüpfburgen. Hence the present article includes the detailed exploration of morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of E. variegata in an attempt to provide a direction for further research.

Written by A Kumar

October 7th, 2010 at 12:00 am

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Salvadora persica

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M Khatak, S Khatak, AA Siddqui, N Vasudeva, A Aggarwal, P Aggarwal

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2010 4(8):209-214

Salvadora persica (kharijal) is a large, well-branched, and evergreen shrub or a tree resembling Salvadora oleoides (meethijal) found in the dry and arid regions of India. Chewing sticks have been used for centuries for tooth cleaning, and are recommended by the World Health Organization in areas where their use is customary. Salvadora persica has enormous reported activities. It has potential medicinal and research activities. Salvadora persica is a promising product and is useful to produce antiplaque, analgesic, anticonvulsant, antibacterial, antimycotic, cytotoxic, antifertility, deobstruent, carminative, diuretic, astringent, and also used in biliousness, and rheumatism. This review highlights the pharmacologic effects and therapeutic effects of Salvadora persica. The chemical constituents present in different parts of the plant are also discussed.

Written by M Khatak

October 7th, 2010 at 12:00 am

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A potential of some medicinal plants as an antiulcer agents

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R Gadekar, PK Singour, PK Chaurasiya, RS Pawar, UK Patil

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2010 4(8):136-146

Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. There are two major factors that can disrupt the mucosal resistance to injury: non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) example, aspirin and Helicobacter pylori infection. Numerous natural products have been evaluated as therapeutics for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including peptic ulcer. There has been considerable pharmacological investigation into the antiulcer activity of some compounds. In this work, we shall review the literature on different medicinal plant and alkaloids with antiulcer activity. This article reviews the antiacid/anti-peptic, gastroprotective and/or antiulcer properties of the most commonly employed herbal medicines and their identified active constituents. The experimental parameters used for antiulcer activity were cold restraint stress-induced ulcer model, Diclofenac-induced ulcer model in rats, (HCl-ethanol)-induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress-induced ulcer in rats. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer and delay ulcer recurrence. About 70% of patients with peptic ulcer disease are infected by Helicobacter pylori and eradication of this microorganism seems to be curative for this disease. This article reviews drugs derived from medicinal plant more commonly used in the world for peptic ulcer and, if reported, the antiulcer activity. This article will be concerned only with the antiulcer and gastro-protective effects.

Written by R Gadekar

October 7th, 2010 at 12:00 am

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