All about Pharmacognosy

All about Pharmacognosy

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Upcoming events. Pharmacognosy Communications. 2014;4(3):90.

Written by nandan

May 29th, 2014 at 10:26 am

Pyrostegia venusta heptane extract containing saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons induces apoptosis on B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells and displays antitumor activity in vivo

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Carlos R Figueiredo, Alisson L Matsuo, Felipe V Pereira, Aline N Rabaca, Camyla F Farias, Natalia Girola, Mariana H Massaoka, Ricardo A Azevedo, Jorge A.B Scutti, Denise C Arruda, Luciana P Silva, Elaine G Rodrigues, João Henrique G Lago, Luiz R Travassos, Regildo M.G Silva

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):363-376

Background: Pyrostegia venusta (Ker. Gawl.) Miers (Bignoniacea) is a medicinal plant from the Brazilian Cerrado used to treat leucoderma and common diseases of the respiratory system. Objective: To investigate the antitumor activity of P.venusta extracts against melanoma. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity and tumor induced cell death of heptane extract (HE) from P. venusta flowers was evaluated against murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells in vitro and in a syngeneic model in vivo. Results: We found that HE induced apoptosis in melanoma cells by disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, induction of reactive oxygen species and late apoptosis evidenced by plasma membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface and activation of caspase-2,-3,-8,-9. HE was also protective against singeneyc subcutaneous melanoma HE compounds were also able to induce cell cycle arrest at G2/M phases on tumor cells. On fractionation of HE in silica gel we isolated a cytotoxic fraction that contained a mixture of saturated hydrocarbons identified by 1 H NMR and GC-MS analyses. Predominant species were octacosane (C 28 H 58 -36%) and triacontane (C 30 H 62 -13%), which individually showed significant cytotoxic activity against murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells in vitro and a very promising antitumor protection against subcutaneous melanoma in vivo. Conclusion: The results suggest that the components of the heptane extract, mainly octasane and triacontane, which showed antitumor properties in experimental melanoma upon regional administration, might also be therapeutic in human cancer, such as in the mostly epidermal and slowly invasive melanomas, such as acral lentiginous melanoma, as an adjuvant treatment to surgical excision.

Written by Carlos R Figueiredo

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

An attempt to stabilize tanshinone IIA solid dispersion by the use of ternary systems with nano-CaCO 3 and poloxamer 188

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Hong-mei Yan, Zhen-hai Zhang, Yan-rong Jiang, Dong-mei Ding, E. Sun, Xiao-bin Jia

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):311-317

Background: Tanshinone IIA (TSIIA) on solid dispersions (SDs) has thermodynamical instability of amorphous drug. Ternary solid dispersions (tSDs) can extend the stability of the amorphous form of drug. Poloxamer 188 was used as a SD carrier. Nano-CaCO 3 played an important role in adsorption of biomolecules and is being developed for a host of biotechnological applications. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the dissolution behavior and accelerated stability of TSIIA on solid dispersions (SDs) by the use of ternary systems with nano-CaCO 3 and poloxamer 188. Materials and Methods: The TSIIA tSDs were prepared by a spray-drying method. First, the effect of combination of poloxamer 188 and nano-CaCO 3 on TSIIA dissolution was studied. Subsequently, a set of complementary techniques (DSC, XRPD, SEM and FTIR) was used to monitor the physical changes of TSIIA in the SDs. Finally, stability test was carried out under the conditions 40°C/75% RH for 6 months. Results: The characterization of tSDs by differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) showed that TSIIA was present in its amorphous form. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) suggested the presence of interactions between TSIIA and carriers in tSDs. Improvement in the dissolution rate was observed for all SDs. The stability study conducted on SDs with nano-CaCO 3 showed stable drug content and dissolution behavior, over the period of 6 months as compared with freshly prepared SDs. Conclusion: SDs preparation with nano-CaCO 3 and poloxamer 188 may be a promising approach to enhance the dissolution and stability of TSIIA.

Written by Hong-mei Yan

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Chitosan and blueberry treatment induces arginase activity and inhibits nitric oxide production during acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity

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Eda Ozcelik, Sema Uslu, Dilek Burukoglu, Ahmet Musmul

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):217-224

Background: Liver diseases have become a major problem of the worldwide. More than 50% of all cases of liver failure can be attributed to drugs. Among these, acetaminophen is the most common cause. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the the hepatoprotective effects of blueberry and chitosan on tissue arginase activity, ornithine and nitric oxide levels during the acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Acetaminophen (250 mg/kg body weight per day), blueberry (60 mg/kg body weight per day) and, chitosan (200 mg/kg body weight per day) were administered to the rats by oral gavage during the experimental period. Results: Blueberry and chitosan significantly decreased liver arginase activity and ornithine levelsand and increased nitric oxide levels. Glutathione levels were remarkably increased by chitosan and blueberry treatments. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that blueberry and chitosan effectively protected against the acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. The hepatoprotective effect afforded by blueberry and chitosan can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Written by Eda Ozcelik

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

The evolution of pharmacognosy in Iran, challenges, and developments

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Soodabeh Saeidnia

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):441-442

Written by Soodabeh Saeidnia

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Cytotoxic neviotane triterpene-type from the red sea sponge Siphonochalina siphonella

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Rihab F. Angawi, Esraa Saqer, Ahmed Abdel-Lateff, Farid A. Badria, Seif-Eldin N. Ayyad

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):334-341

Background: Siphonochalina siphonella is a marine sponge collected from saudi Red Sea water and scare study from this region. Objective: To isolate the anticancer triterpenes with potent cytotoxicity from marine sponge, Siphonochalina siphonella and state the mode of action in cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The sponge material was collected, extracted with organic solvent, and fractionated on different adsorbents. The structure of the pure metabolites were elucidated employing different spectroscopic techniques including 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D (COSY, HMQC and HMBC) NMR, and MS spectroscopy. Results: A new Neviotine-C (1) was obtained, along with four known metabolites (2-5). All compounds, except 5, were tested towards MCF-7, PC-3 and A549 and showed effects with IC 50 in range 7.9-87 μM, whilst, 3 showed potent anti-proliferative activity against PC-3 and A549 with IC 50 = 7.9 ± 0.120 and 8.9 ± 0.010 μM, respectively. Conclusion: Compounds (1-4) showed significant cytotoxic activities, while 3 showed potent effect. The antiproliferative of 3 was attributed to significant S-phase cell cycle arrest.

Written by Rihab F. Angawi

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Inhibition of LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced foam cell formation in RAW 264.7 cells show anti-atherogenic properties of a foliar methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis

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Sinjitha S. Nambiar, Nandini Prasad Shetty, Praveena Bhatt, Bhagyalakshmi Neelwarne

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):240-248

Background: Oxidation of low density lipoproteins and their further uptake by macrophages is known to result in the formation of foam cells, which are critical in the initiation of atherosclerosis through activation of inflammatory signalling cascades. Thus, powerful dietary antioxidants are receiving attention for the reversal of such pathological states. Materials and Methods: Extracts of Scoparia dulcis have been used as tea and health drinks with various health promoting effects. In the present study, we examined the reactive oxygen scavenging potential as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic efficacies, using leaf extracts obtained after successive extraction with various solvents. Results: A methanol extract showed potent antioxidant activity with an IC 50 value of 570 μg/ml, caused hydrogen peroxide scavenging (28.9 µg/ml) and anti-inflammatory effects by improving human erythrocyte membrane stabilisation (about 86%). The methanol extract also efficiently inhibited lipid peroxidation and oxidation of low density lipoproteins, thus preventing foam cell formation in cultured RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, phytochemical screening of the extracts showed high accumulation of flavonoids. Conclusions: The foliar methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis has a strong anti-atherogenic potential and this property could be attributed maybe due to presence of flavonoids since HPLC analysis showed high concentrations of myricetin and rutin in the methanol extract.

Written by Sinjitha S. Nambiar

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Efficiency and selectivity of triterpene acid extraction from decoctions and tinctures prepared from apple peels

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Antonio C. Siani, Marcos J. Nakamura, Daniel S. dos Santos, Jose L. Mazzei, Adriana C. do Nascimento, Ligia M.M. Valente

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):225-231

Background: This study assessed the extraction efficiency of ursolic (UA) and oleanolic acids (OA), as well as the total phenols in aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of dry apple peels at room temperature. Materials and Methods: After running preliminary assays on decoctions and tinctures (ethanol: water 7:3 v/v), the extracts from dried apple (cv. Fuji) peels were obtained by static maceration over varied intervals (2 to 180 days). The UA and OA content in the extracts was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) with a reversed phase column and isocratic elution (CH 3 CN/H 2 O/H 3 PO 4 ) against calibration curves (R 2 > 0.9995). The total phenol content in the extracts was evaluated spectrophotometrically at 760 nm using the Folin-Ciocalteau method referencing gallic acid. Results: UA and OA in the hydroethanolic extracts ranged from 3.63-6.12 mg/g and 2.12-3.30 mg/g, corresponding to 1.72-3.07 and 1.00-1.66 mg/g in the raw material, respectively. Higher values of triterpene acid content corresponded to maceration periods of 10 or 30 days. The residual phenol and polyphenol content ranged from 6.97 to 11.6 mg/g. The UA and OA yields, as well as the total phenol content, versus the maceration time were plotted in Control Charts within confidence intervals (95%) and were unaffected during the assayed period. Conclusion: Apple peel tinctures from 10% solids obtained at room temperature exhibited the highest content of triterpene acids when employing a maceration period of 10 to 30 days. Extracts prepared using this procedure contained an average of 7.33 mg/g of total triterpene acids and 10.6 mg/g phenolic compounds. These results establish supporting data for apple peel tinctures and their derived phytopharmaceuticals that are standardized on the ursolic-oleanolic acid content.

Written by Antonio C. Siani

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Hemostatic, milk clotting and blood stain removal potential of cysteine proteases from Calotropis gigantea (L.) R. Br. Latex

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Omana Sukumaran Bindhu, Maheshwari Kumari Singh

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):350-356

Introduction: Plant latex is a natural source of biologically active compounds and several hydrolytic enzymes responsible for their diverse health benefits. Recent past has witnessed substantial progress in understanding their supplementary industrial and pharmaceutical utility. Calotropis gigantea is one of the important latex producing plants belonging to asclepediaceae family with wide ethnopharmacological applications and is rich in proteolytic enzymes. Present study investigates hemostatic, milk clotting and blood stain removal potential of C. gigantea latex proteases. Materials and Methods: The protease activity of crude enzyme (CE), obtained by centrifugation followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis, was assayed using casein as the substrate. Effect of pH, temperature and specific inhibitors on protease activity was determined. Native PAGE and in gel protease activity of CE was performed. Hemostatic (Fibrinogen polymerization, fibrinogen agarose plate and blood clot lysis assays), milk clotting and blood stain removal efficacies of CE were determined. Results: CE exhibited high caseinolytic activity. Enzyme activity was optimum at 37-50ºC and pH 8.0. Fibrinogen polymerization assay showed concentration dependent increase in turbidity indicating thrombin like activity which was further confirmed by fibrinogen agarose plate assays. Clot lysis assay indicated 92.41% thrombolysis by CE in 90 min. CE also revealed significantly high ratio of milk clotting to protease activity (Milk Clotting Index, MCI = 827.59 ± 1.52). Complete destaining of blood stained fabric was observed when incubated with 1% detergent incorporated with 0.1mg/ml CE. The study highlights and validates the compound application potential of latex cysteine proteases from C. gigantea.

Written by Omana Sukumaran Bindhu

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant and antiglycating activities of the Eysenhardtia polystachya

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Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez, Efren Garcia Baez

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):404-418

Background: Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and antiglycation properties of Eysenhardtia polystachya (EP) bark methanol-water extract. Materials and Methods : The antioxidant capacities were evaluated by studying in vitro the scavenging of DPPH and ABTS free radical, reactive oxygen species such as RO 2 , O 2· – , H 2 O 2 , OH . , H 2 O 2 , ONOO-, NO, HOCl, 1 O 2 , chelating ability, ORAC, β-carotene-bleaching and lipid peroxidation. The antiglycation activities of EP were evaluated by haemoglobin, bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glucose, BSA-methylglyoxal and BSA-glucose assays. Oral administration of EP at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/g was studied in normal, glucose-loaded and antidiabetic effects on streptozotocin-induced mildly diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) mice. Results: EP showed Hdonor activity, free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating ability and lipid peroxidation Antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. EP is an inhibitor of fluorescent AGE, methylglyoxal and the glycation of haemoglobin. In STZ-induced diabetic mice, EP reduced the blood glucose, increased serum insulin, body weight, marker enzymes of hepatic function, glycogen, HDL, GK and HK while there was reduction in the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, TBARS, LDL and G6Pase. Conclusions: Eysenhardtia polystachya possesses considerable antioxidant activity with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity and demonstrated an anti-AGEs and hepatoprotective role, inhibits hyperglycemic, hyperlipidemic and oxidative stress indicating that these effects may be mediated by interacting with multiple targets operating in diabetes mellitus.

Written by Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

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