All about Pharmacognosy

All about Pharmacognosy

Archive for the ‘Journals’ Category

Intensification of bioactive compounds extraction from medicinal plants using ultrasonic irradiation

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Renata Vardanega, Diego T. Santos, M. Angela A. Meireles

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):88-95

Extraction processes are largely used in many chemical, biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries for recovery of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants. To replace the conventional extraction techniques, new techniques as high-pressure extraction processes that use environment friendly solvents have been developed. However, these techniques, sometimes, are associated with low extraction rate. The ultrasound can be effectively used to improve the extraction rate by the increasing the mass transfer and possible rupture of cell wall due the formation of microcavities leading to higher product yields with reduced processing time and solvent consumption. This review presents a brief survey about the mechanism and aspects that affecting the ultrasound assisted extraction focusing on the use of ultrasound irradiation for high-pressure extraction processes intensification.

Written by Renata Vardanega

June 10th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Molecule mechanism of stem cells in Arabidopsis thaliana

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Wenjin Zhang, Rongming Yu

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):105-112

Plants possess the ability to continually produce new tissues and organs throughout their life. Unlike animals, plants are exposed to extreme variations in environmental conditions over the course of their lives. The vitality of plants is so powerful that they can survive several hundreds of years or even more making it an amazing miracle that comes from plant stem cells. The stem cells continue to divide to renew themselves and provide cells for the formation of leaves, stems, and flowers. Stem cells are not only quiescent but also immortal, pluripotent and homeostatic. Stem cells are the magic cells that repair tissues and regenerate organs. During the past decade, scholars around the world have paid more and more attention toward plant stem cells. At present, the major challenge is in relating molecule action mechanism to root apical meristem, shoot apical meristem and vascular system. The coordination between stem cells maintenance and differentiation is critical for normal plant growth and development. Elements such as phytohormones, transcription factors and some other known or unknown genes cooperate to balance this process. In this review, Arabidopsis thaliana as a pioneer system, we highlight recent developments in molecule modulating, illustrating how plant stem cells generate new mechanistic insights into the regulation of plants growth and development.

Written by Wenjin Zhang

June 10th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Psidium guajava: A review on its potential as an adjunct in treating periodontal disease

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K. Ravi, P. Divyashree

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):96-100

Plants for thousands of years have been used to enhance health and for medicinal purposes. Psidium guajava is one which has an enormous wealth of medicinal value. It for long has been known for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic properties. Despite of its widespread biologic uses there is a dearth of information on its therapeutic effect in the treatment of periodontal disease. Hence, this review is an attempt to highlight the potential of P. guajava in the treatment of periodontal disease. Internet databases PubMed, Google Scholar were searched and the most relevant articles were considered for review.

Written by K. Ravi

June 10th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Cytotoxicity of dietary flavonoids on different human cancer types

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Katrin Sak

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):122-146

Flavonoids are ubiquitous in nature. They are also in food, providing an essential link between diet and prevention of chronic diseases including cancer. Anticancer effects of these polyphenols depend on several factors: Their chemical structure and concentration, and also on the type of cancer. Malignant cells from different tissues reveal somewhat different sensitivity toward flavonoids and, therefore, the preferences of the most common dietary flavonoids to various human cancer types are analyzed in this review. While luteolin and kaempferol can be considered as promising candidate agents for treatment of gastric and ovarian cancers, respectively, apigenin, chrysin, and luteolin have good perspectives as potent antitumor agents for cervical cancer; cells from main sites of flavonoid metabolism (colon and liver) reveal rather large fluctuations in anticancer activity probably due to exposure to various metabolites with different activities. Anticancer effect of flavonoids toward blood cancer cells depend on their myeloid, lymphoid, or erythroid origin; cytotoxic effects of flavonoids on breast and prostate cancer cells are highly related to the expression of hormone receptors. Different flavonoids are often preferentially present in certain food items, and knowledge about the malignant tissue-specific anticancer effects of flavonoids could be purposely applied both in chemoprevention as well as in cancer treatment.

Written by Katrin Sak

June 10th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Rubus fruticosus (blackberry) use as an herbal medicine

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Rameshwar Verma, Tushar Gangrade, Rakesh Punasiya, Chetan Ghulaxe

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):101-104

Wild grown European blackberry Rubus fruticosus) plants are widespread in different parts of northern countries and have been extensively used in herbal medicine. The result show that European blackberry plants are used for herbal medicinal purpose such as antimicrobial, anticancer, antidysentery, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, and also good antioxidant. Blackberry plant (R. fruticosus) contains tannins, gallic acid, villosin, and iron; fruit contains vitamin C, niacin (nicotinic acid), pectin, sugars, and anthocyanins and also contains of berries albumin, citric acid, malic acid, and pectin. Some selected physicochemical characteristics such as berry weight, protein, pH, total acidity, soluble solid, reducing sugar, vitamin C, total antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial screening of fruit, leaves, root, and stem of R. fruticosus, and total anthocyanins of four preselected wild grown European blackberry (R. fruticosus) fruits are investigated. Significant differences on most of the chemical content detect among the medicinal use. The highest protein content (2%), the genotypes with the antioxidant activity of standard butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) studies 85.07%. Different cultivars grown in same location consistently show differences in antioxidant capacity.

Written by Rameshwar Verma

June 10th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Pharmacological aspects of Nerium indicum Mill: A comprehensive review

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Priyankar Dey, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):156-162

Phytomedicine is the oldest medical practice known to man. Since the dawn of mankind, various plant resources are used to cure different diseases and also for a long and healthy life. The ancient knowledge of plant based medicine has transferred from generations to generations and accumulated as ethnopharmacological knowledge among different ethnic groups. India is the spanning bed of traditional phytomedicinal system where Ayurveda was born out of the knowledge of traditional medicine. In various other countries of South-Eastern Asia, South America, and in Arabian countries, still today, a great number of people rely primarily on phytomedicines to cure diseases. In the complementary and alternative medicinal systems, Nerium indicum is one such plant which is famed for its therapeutic efficiency in different diseases globally. In the present time, when the pharmaceutical companies are concentrating more toward the plant based traditional medicines to avoid the side-effects and resistance against synthetic drugs, N. indicum has proved its efficiency in different disease models. Therefore, this review comprehensively covers the medicinal and pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant N. indicum.

Written by Priyankar Dey

June 10th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Upcoming events

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Upcoming events. Pharmacognosy Communications. 2014;4(3):90.

Written by nandan

May 29th, 2014 at 10:26 am

Chitosan and blueberry treatment induces arginase activity and inhibits nitric oxide production during acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity

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Eda Ozcelik, Sema Uslu, Dilek Burukoglu, Ahmet Musmul

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):217-224

Background: Liver diseases have become a major problem of the worldwide. More than 50% of all cases of liver failure can be attributed to drugs. Among these, acetaminophen is the most common cause. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the the hepatoprotective effects of blueberry and chitosan on tissue arginase activity, ornithine and nitric oxide levels during the acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Acetaminophen (250 mg/kg body weight per day), blueberry (60 mg/kg body weight per day) and, chitosan (200 mg/kg body weight per day) were administered to the rats by oral gavage during the experimental period. Results: Blueberry and chitosan significantly decreased liver arginase activity and ornithine levelsand and increased nitric oxide levels. Glutathione levels were remarkably increased by chitosan and blueberry treatments. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that blueberry and chitosan effectively protected against the acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. The hepatoprotective effect afforded by blueberry and chitosan can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Written by Eda Ozcelik

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Anti-cholinesterase activity of the standardized extract of Syzygium aromaticum L.

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Manoj K. Dalai, Santanu Bhadra, Sushil K. Chaudhary, Arun Bandyopadhyay, Pulok K. Mukherjee

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):276-282

Background: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is a well-known culinary spice with strong aroma; contains a high amount of oil known as clove oil. The major phyto-constituent of the clove oil is eugenol. Clove and its oil possess various medicinal uses in indigenous medicine as an antiseptic, anti-oxidant, analgesic and neuroprotective properties. Thus, it draws much attention among researchers from pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-cholinesterase activity of the methanol extract of clove, its oil and eugenol. Materials and Methods: In vitro anti-cholinesterase activity of S. aromaticum was performed by a thin layer chromatography bio autography, 96 well micro titer plate and kinetic methods. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis was carried out to identify the biomarker compound eugenol in clove oil. Results: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition study revealed that eugenol possess better inhibition of the enzymes than extract and oil. Clove extract, its oil and eugenol showed better inhibition of AChE than BChE. Polyphenolic compound eugenol was detected through RP-HPLC analysis. The content of eugenol in essential oil was found to be 0.5 μg/ml. Kinetic analysis of the cholinesterase inhibition study of the extract; clove oil and eugenol have shown that they possess mixed type of inhibition for AChE and non-competitive type of inhibition for BChE. Conclusion: These results might be useful in explaining the effect of clove as anti-cholinesterase agent for the management of cognitive ailments like Alzheimer's disease.

Written by Manoj K. Dalai

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Cytotoxic neviotane triterpene-type from the red sea sponge Siphonochalina siphonella

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Rihab F. Angawi, Esraa Saqer, Ahmed Abdel-Lateff, Farid A. Badria, Seif-Eldin N. Ayyad

Pharmacognosy Magazine 2014 10(38):334-341

Background: Siphonochalina siphonella is a marine sponge collected from saudi Red Sea water and scare study from this region. Objective: To isolate the anticancer triterpenes with potent cytotoxicity from marine sponge, Siphonochalina siphonella and state the mode of action in cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The sponge material was collected, extracted with organic solvent, and fractionated on different adsorbents. The structure of the pure metabolites were elucidated employing different spectroscopic techniques including 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D (COSY, HMQC and HMBC) NMR, and MS spectroscopy. Results: A new Neviotine-C (1) was obtained, along with four known metabolites (2-5). All compounds, except 5, were tested towards MCF-7, PC-3 and A549 and showed effects with IC 50 in range 7.9-87 μM, whilst, 3 showed potent anti-proliferative activity against PC-3 and A549 with IC 50 = 7.9 ± 0.120 and 8.9 ± 0.010 μM, respectively. Conclusion: Compounds (1-4) showed significant cytotoxic activities, while 3 showed potent effect. The antiproliferative of 3 was attributed to significant S-phase cell cycle arrest.

Written by Rihab F. Angawi

May 28th, 2014 at 12:00 am