Anti-allergic activity of the Morinda citrifolia extract and its constituents

Kazuya Murata, Yumi Abe, Kaito Shinohara, Megumi Futamura-Masuda, Akemi Uwaya, Fumiyuki Isami, Hideaki Matsuda

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):260-265

Background: Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae), commonly known as noni is distributed throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Anti-allergic effects of noni have not been reported despite the clinical usage as an anti-allergic agent. Materials and Methods: To investigate the anti-allergic effects of the 50% ethanolic extract of M. citrifolia fruits and leaves (MCF-ext and MCL-ext), dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced triphasic cutaneous reaction and picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) tests were performed. Results: In DNFB-induced triphasic cutaneous reaction, oral administration of MCF-ext and MCL-ext exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of cutaneous reaction at 1 h (immediate phase response) after the DNFB challenge. MCF-ext also inhibited ear swelling at 24 h (late phase response) and 8 days (very late phase response) after the DNFB challenge. The effect of MCL-ext on the immediate phase response was attributed to the anti-degranulation from RBL-2H3 cells, while MCF-ext had no significant effect on degranulation. The active components of anti-degranulation activity in MCL-ext were determined to be ursolic acid, rutin and kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside. In the PC-CD test, both MCF-ext and MCL-ext showed an anti-swelling effect but the potency of MCF-ext was stronger than MCL-ext. Conclusion: These data suggest that noni fruits and leaves can be a daily consumable material for the prevention of allergic symptoms.

Exploiting the phenomenal anti-ulcerogenic potential of Talinum portulacifolium ethanolic extract whole plant on Albino Rats: The therapeutic potential of Chinese Herb-mǎ chǐ xiàn kē (Portulacaceae)

Rohit Gundamaraju, Kotla Maheedhar, Kim Kah Hwi

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):227-233

Background: Ulcerations have been effecting humans and causing major damage in the gastro intestinal tract. A need for development of a flawless anti-ulcer medication was always in the agenda. Thus, the need to conduct a study was provoked. Objectives: The major objective of the present study is to screen the antiulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of Talinum portulacifolium (Forsk) plant. Materials and Methods: The antiulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of T.Z portulacifolium was performed on albino rats. Gastric ulcers were induced by ethanol, pylorus ligated aspirin and histamine induced ulcer models. Omeprazole was used as a standard drug for comparison. Results: Treatment with the T. portulacifolium plant extract significantly protected the ulceration induced by the three models. The gastric volume, pH of gastric juice, total acidity, free acidity and ulcer index were the parameters estimated and did show significant results. 800 mg/kg extracts of T. portulacifolium did show high significant results as that of standard drug. Percentage protection of 800 mg/kg was 79.9% and the standard drug-treated group did show 84%. So was with total acidity (38.1 + 1.45) and free acidity (16.5 + 0.76) Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of T. portulacifolium plant was found to possess a significant antiulcer activity.

Pharmacognostic specifications and quantification of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in Pentace burmanica stem bark

Thidarat Duangyod, Chanida Palanuvej, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):251-256

Background: According to Thai traditional medicine, Pentace burmanica Kurz. stem bark has been used as crude drug for treating diarrhea. However, the crude drug is also found susceptible to adulteration. Objectives: To develop specific standardization parameters of P. burmanica stem bark in Thailand and to determine the (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin contents of P. burmanica stem bark by HPLC analysis. Materials and Methods: P. burmanica stem barks from various sources throughout Thailand were investigated according to WHO guideline of the pharmacognostic specification. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed for (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin quantification. Results: Macroscopic evaluation was demonstrated as whole plant drawing. Microscopic evaluation of stem bark powdered drug showed fragment of fibers, resin masses, tannin masses, starch grain, calcium oxalate, and fragment of parenchyma. Physico-chemical parameters revealed that total ash, acid insoluble ash, loss on drying, and water content should be not more than 3.58, 0.50, 8.40, and 9.70% of dry weight respectively; while ethanol and water soluble extractive values should not be less than 21.90 and 19.06% of dry weight respectively. Both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were existed in P. burmanica ethanolic extract. Owing to the small amount of (+)-catechin, quantitation of its content was omitted. However, (-)-epicatechin contents was found as 59.74 ± 1.69μg/mg of crude extract. Conclusion: The pharmacognostic investigations can be used to set the standard parameters of P. burmanica stem bark in Thailand. HPLC method can be applied to determine (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin content in plant materials.

Evaluation of antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of different solvent extracts of leaves of Citrullus colocynthis

Fazilatun Nessa, Saeed A. Khan

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):218-226

Background: Citrullus colocynthis is a folk medicinal plan of United Arab Emirates. Several studies on this plant reported and focused on the biological and toxicological profile of fruits pulp. The present study focused on the antioxidant potency of leaf extract of this plant. Aim: To evaluate the antioxidant and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activities of C. colocynthis by chemical method. Materials and Methods: Four different solvent extracts (methanol-CCM, methanol: water (1:1)-CCMW, chloroform-CCC and hexane-CCH) of leaves of C. colocynthis were investigated for their free radical scavenging activity using DPPH radical as a substrate, lipid peroxidation (LPO) inhibitory activity using a model system consisting of β-carotene-linoleic acid, superoxide radical scavenging activity (enzymatically/nonenzymatically) and XO inhibitory activity. A dose response curve was plotted for determining SC 50 and IC 50 values for expressing the results of free radical scavenging activity and XO inhibitory activities respectively. Results: The high polyphenolic content of CCM and CCMW extract showed highest antioxidant activity irrespective the method used for this investigation. The overall results decreased in the order of: CCM > CCMW > CCC > CCH. CCH extract was inactive towards chemically generated superoxide radical and poor DPPH radical scavengers. The results of LPO inhibitory activities of leaves extract (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) also decreased in the order of: CCM > CCMW > CCC > CCH. Overall 1.0 mg/mL leaves extract showed highest antioxidant potency amongst the studied concentration. Conclusion: CCMW and CCM extract of C. colocynthis exhibited promising antioxidants and XO inhibitory activities.

Investigation of effects of time of measurement and modes of administration on cadmium accumulation in rat liver under some medicinal plants food supplemented diet

Chukwuemeka R. Nwokocha, Novie Younger-Coleman, Magdalene Nwokocha, Daniel U. Owu, Moses Iwuala

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):240-245

Context and Objectives: Cadmium (Cd) toxicity leads to cell and organ damage, we comparatively examined the protection ability of different medicinal plants on Cd liver accumulation following different treatment interventions and modes of administration. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed either 7% w/w Zingiber officinale, 7% w/w Allium Sativum, 10% w/w Lycopersicon esculentum, 5%, w/w Garcinia kola (all in rat chow), while Cd (200 ppm) was given in drinking water. Additives were administered together with (mode 1), a week after (mode 2) or a week before metal exposure (mode 3) for a period of six weeks. Cd liver was determined using AAS and compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: All additives significantly (P <0.5) reduced the accumulation of Cd in the liver. After adjusting for time and mode of administration, mean %protection for week 4 was significantly lower by 14.1% (P=0.02) from that for week 2 but the means did not differ with respect to additive used or mode of administration, no statistically significant interaction between modes of administration and either of additives used or time of administration in their respective relationships to percentage protection from Cd. Conclusion: Additives significantly reduced Cd accumulation through a reduction in absorption and enhancement of metal excretion.

Anti-nephrotoxic activity of some medicinal plants from tribal rich pockets of Odisha

Satyaranjan Mishra, Saumya Ranjan Pani, Sabuj Sahoo

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):210-217

Background: Gentamicin, a strong cationic drug accumulated at biological membranes causes net increase in oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation leading to necrotic changes in renal tubles and consequently precipitates acute nephrotoxicity. Several phytoconstituents and plants extracts demonstrated significant anti-oxidant and cyto-protective activities. Vitex negundo Linn. (VN), Oroxylum indicum Vent. (OI) and Barringtonia acutangula Linn. (BA) are widely found throughout the Asian sub-continent including India, used extensively in different forms of Indian traditional medicine like Ayurveda and Unani. Objective: Nephroprotective activity of extracts of VN roots, OI whole plant and BA leaves were investigated against experimentally induced acute nephrotoxicity [Gentamicin (i.p; 80mg/kg for 7 days)] in Wistar rats as test animals. Materials and Methods: The rats were treated with Cystone (5 mL/kg; p.o) taken as positive control and methanol-dichloromethane (1:1) extracts of VN, OI and BA (200 mg/kg; p.o) as test drugs for 7 days. Following the said treatments, biochemical parameters of urine (volume, creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) and serum (urea, creatinine, albumin and total protein) were estimated. Renal anti-oxidant markers viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in renal tissue were assayed. Tissue sections of kidneys from different groups were made and histopathological features were observed. Result: The extracts of VN, OI and BA significantly attenuated the nephrotoxicity by elevation of body weight, CAT, GPx and SOD or lowering urine LDH and creatinine, serum urea; serum creatinine and LPO respectively. Histopathological score of VN, OI and BA treated groups were 1+, 2+ and 2+ respectively against 4+ of the toxic group. Conclusion: The findings suggested the significant nephroprotection of VN roots followed by OI whole plant and BA leaves.

Screening of anticancer activity from agarwood essential oil

Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun Hashim, Abbas Phirdaous, Amid Azura

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):191-194

Background: Agarwood is a priceless non-timber forest product from Aquilaria species belonging to the Thymelaeaceae family. As a result of a defence mechanism to fend off pathogens, Aquilaria species develop agarwood or resin which can be used for incense, perfumery, and traditional medicines. Evidences from ethnopharmacological practices showed that Aquilaria spp. have been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic practice and Chinese medicine to treat various diseases particularly the inflammatory-associated diseases. There have been no reports on traditional use of agarwood towards cancer treatment. However, this is most probably due to the fact that cancer nomenclature is used in modern medicine to describe the diseases associated with unregulated cell growth in which inflammation and body pain are involved. Objective: The aim of this current study was therefore to investigate the potential anticancer properties of agarwood essential oil obtained from distillation of agarwood (resin) towards MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The essential oil was subjected to screening assays namely cell viability, cell attachment and sulforhodamine B (SRB)-based cytotoxicity assay to determine the IC 50 value. Results: The agarwood essential oil caused reduction of the cell number in both the cell viability and attachment assay suggesting a cumulative effect of the cell killing, inhibition of the cell attachment and or causing cells to detach. The agarwood essential oil showed IC 50 value of 900 &#956;g/ml towards the cancer cells. Conclusion: The agarwood essential oil exhibited anticancer activity which supports the traditional use against the inflammatory-associated diseases. This warrants further investigation towards the development of alternative remedy towards cancer.

Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Saroj Kumar Sahoo, Sarada Prasad Sarangi, Rakesh Sagar, Mohan Lal Kori

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):204-209

Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods : The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim.

Effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats

Ajitha Sharma, Manjunath Shetty, Amrita Parida, Shalini Adiga, Shobha Kamath, Sowjanya

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):246-250

Background: The effects and benefits of Acacia auriculiformis on health are not well established. This study was planned to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats. Materials and Methods: Learning and memory were evaluated using passive avoidance paradigm and rewarded alternation test (T-maze) after the oral administration of two doses (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis with rivastigmine as positive control. Forty eight rats were divided into 4 groups in each study model. Estimation of brain cholinesterase activity was done to substantiate the results of the above mentioned tests. Data was analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test using GraphPad InStat software, version 3.06. Results: The extract produced a dose-dependent improvement in the memory score namely the step through latency in passive avoidance model (P < 0.001) and the percentage of correct responses in rewarded alternation test (P < 0.05). Dose-dependent inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity (P < 0.001) was also noted. Conclusion: The acetylcholinesterase inhibiting property of Acacia auriculiformis contributes to its memory enhancing potential. Further large scale studies are required to elucidate its benefits on cognitive function. This may offer a promising new option for the treatment of dementia and other cognitive deficits.

Ameliorative effect of Matricaria chamomilla.L on paraquat: Induced oxidative damage in lung rats

Akram Ranjbar, Fariba Mohsenzadeh, Abdolkarim Chehregani, Farzad Khajavi, Seyed-Mostafa Hossini Zijoud, Hassan Ghasemi

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):199-203

Background: Herbal medicines have been long used for antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcholic extract Matricaria chamomilla. L (M. chamomilla) against Paraquat (PQ) induced pulmonary injury in association with its antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: Effective doses of PQ (5 mg/kg/day) and M. chamomilla (50 mg/kg/day) were administered alone or in combination for 7 days. At the end of the experiment, lung tissue of the animals was separated. The activity of enzymatic scavengers such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant power (TAP) were measured. Results: In these samples, the LPO, SOD, and GPx were higher in the PQ group as compared with controls. M. chamomilla extract ameliorated LPO, SOD, GPx and increased TAP in plasma and lung tissue of PQ induced changes. Co administration of PQ with M. chamomilla improved LPO and SOD, and GPx. Conclusion: M. chamomilla as natural antioxidant may be considered beneficial for the protection oxidative lung injury in PQ poisoning.

Constituents of Artemisia indica Willd. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A source of davanone

S. Zafar Haider, Manindra Mohan, Harish Chandra Andola

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):257-259

Background: The genus Artemisia is important due to its medicinal properties as well as vital aroma compounds of commercial value. Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the potential of the essential oil of Artemisia indica wildly growing in Uttarakhand. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of Artemisia indica Willd. (Asteraceae), collected from wild growing habitat of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand (north of India) at full flowering stage were hydro-distilled and gave pale yellow oil with the yield of 0.8% (v/w). The obtained essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS and identified 32 components, amounting 95.42% of the oil. Results: Among detected compounds, the principal component was found to be davanone (30.80%), followed by &#946;-pinene (15.30%) and germacrene-D (5.82%). Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on A. indica from Himalayan region of India, which detected davanone as major component. The species, collected from a specific location, can be explored for isolation of davanone for its industrial utilization and as alternate source of Artemisia pallens, which have already established commercial value.

The influence of pharmaceutical vermipreparations on the test-reaction of organisms of the different levels of the organization

Daevard I. Stom, Viktor Alexandrovich Bybin, Alla E. Balayan, Michael N. Saksonov, Valentina P. Salovarova

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):195-198

The efficiency of vermipreparations has been investigated with the help of the test-reactions on various invertebrate organisms, plants and microorganisms. The principal possibility of the use of biotest on the basis of yeast, fungi, algae, water and ground-based plants, sponges, protozoan, small crustaceans, oligochaetes for an estimation of biological activity of vermipreparations and in further and for definition of quality, selection of dose of medicinal complex preparations is shown.

Solicitation of HPLC and HPTLC Techniques for Determination of Rutin from Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites

Gaurav Mahesh Doshi, Sandeep Prabhakar Zine, Pratip Kashinath Chaskar, Hemant Devidas Une

Pharmacognosy Research 2014 6(3):234-239

Background: Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites is an important traditional plant in India. Rutin, an active constituent has been reported to possess good amount of pharmacological as well as therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to find out by analytical techniques how much percentage of rutin is present in the plant leaves' ethanolic extract by analytical techniques. Materials and Methods: Shade dried leaves of Polyalthia longifolia were subjected to cold ethanolic extraction followed by monitoring the isolated rutin high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) after carrying out preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Extraction yield was found to be 13.94% w/w. Phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, diterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and phenolic compounds and mucilage. From the Rf value, the ethanolic extract was found to be having constituent identical to rutin. By HPTLC and HPLC the amount of rutin was found to be 11.60% w/w and 4.03% w/v, respectively. Conclusion: The active constituent isolated was found to be equal to rutin.

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