Attenuation of Oxidative Damage in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits Following Administration of the Extract of the Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina.

Research Article |

doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.13 ,
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Abstract:
Introduction: Diabetes is a disease that constitutes multiple sources of free radicals, thus oxidative stress is expected to have a double impact. Since oxidative stress is mediated by hyperglycemia-induced generation of free radical, it is supposed that compounds with hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties would be useful antidiabetic agents. Our study investigated the use of V. amygdalina as a potential hypoglycemic and antioxidative agent by testing its effect on the antioxidant biomarkers and lipid peroxidation. Methods: Dried leaves of V. amgydalina were extracted for 48 hrs and freeze dried. Acute toxicity was investigated in 25 rats. Thirty six rabbits were divided into 6 groups: groups I – III were normal; diabetes was induced in groups (IV – VI). Groups I and IV were normal and diabetic controls respectively. The animals were treated with aqueous leaf extract of V. amygdalina. Blood samples were collected and used for the study. Results: The reduction in body weight in the diabetic groups was regained following administration of the extract of V. amgydalina. The extract is considered safe and had little or no effect on blood glucose, MDA and GSH levels of the normal rabbits. Extract significantly reduced glucose and MDA concentrations but increased GSH levels in the diabetic rabbits. Similarly, the extract had no effect on the activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in normal rabbits, however in diabetic rabbits, the enzymes activities increased dose-dependently. Conclusion: This finding provides basis for the use of V. amgydalina as potential antidiabetic antioxidant agent and may be useful for its hypoglycemic property.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Free radical, lipid peroxidation, Oxidative stress, Vernonia amygdalina.

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Radical Scavenging and Antioxidant Activity of Carthamus tinctorius Extracts

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.12 ,
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Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation, protein peroxidation, and DNA damage. It has been reported that numerous plant extracts have antioxidant activities to scavenge free radicals. In the present study, we examines the in vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of Crude extract of Carthamus tinctorius by using different in vitro analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging by riboflavin–methionine-illuminate system. Also, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol were used as the reference antioxidant radical scavenger compounds. Extract inhibited 94.50% lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 20 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, the above mentioned standard antioxidants indicated an inhibition of 93.75%, 96.66% and 83.33% on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 60 μg/mL concentration, respectively. In addition, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, DPPH scavenging, ABTS+ radical scavenging and superoxide anion radical scavenging. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol as references antioxidant compounds. The present study shows that Extract is the effective natural antioxidant component.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity; scavenging activity, free radical, Carthamus tinctorius.

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In vitro Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Endophytic Extracts of Crotalaria pallida

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.11 ,
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Introduction: The species Crotalaria pallida, which belongs to the Fabaceae family (Sub-family Faboideae), the members of which are herbs, shrubs and trees found in both temperate and tropical areas. All parts of the plants were incubated to know and isolate the endophytes. Antioxidants play an important role in protecting cellular damage by reactive oxygen species. Phenolic compounds from plants or endophytes have been reported to possess strong antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods: Four different endophytic fungi isolated from Crotalaria pallida were tested for various phytochemicals. Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum yielded the tannin, flavonoids, tepenoids, phenol and saponins from ethanol extract. All four different endophytic extracts were used to evaluated in vitro antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP method. Antioxidant compounds like total phenol and flavonoid were also determined. Results: The ethanol extracts of A. niger and F. oxysporum showed potent antioxidant activity against ABTS, FRAP and DPPH radicals with EC50. The total amount of phenol and flavonoid quantified were of 19.20, 19.23 gallic acid equivalent per gram of two endophytic fungi, A. niger and F. oxysporum and 7.25 and 6.41 μg/mg of quercetin equivalent respectively. Conclusions: The antioxidant potential may be directly linked to the phenolic compounds present in the endophytes, A. niger and F. oxysporum of Crotalaria pallida. The outcome of the present investigation clearly indicates that A. niger and F. oxysporum showed potential phytochemicals and they can used as antioxidants.

Keywords: Antioxidant, endophytic fungi, ABTS, FRAP, DPPH, Phenol

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Free Radical Scavenging and Anti-lipid Peroxidative Effects of a Hydro-ethanolic Extract of the Whole Plant of Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn (Asteraceae)

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.10 ,
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Background: Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn. (Asteraceae), a native Ghanaian shrub, has been used for the treatment of epilepsy, hiccup and threatened abortion. The present study aimed at investigating the possible mechanisms of antioxidant effects of the hydro-ethanolic extract of the whole plant. Methods: Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin- Ciocalteau assay and the antioxidant capacity by the phosphomolybdenum method. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assays, reducing power assay and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and lipid peroxidation in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- kindled rat brains. Results: The extract (0.1-3.0 mg ml-1) was found to contain phenolic compounds which could be responsible for the antioxidant properties since the coefficient of correlation between the Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) was high (r2 = 0.9908). Both n-propyl gallate (0.001-0.03 mg ml-1), a reference antioxidant and the extract (0.1-3 mg ml-1) exhibited antioxidant properties by reducing Fe3+ to Fe2+ in the reducing power test, scavenged DPPH free radicals and effectively inhibited linoleic acid autoxidation and also inhibited lipid peroxidation in PTZ-kindled rat brains. Conclusions:These findings suggest that hydro-ethanolic extract of Synedrella nodiflora contains antioxidant principles which may contribute to its traditional use in epilepsy management.

Keywords: Synedrella nodiflora, antioxidant, linoleic acid, autoxidation, n-propyl gallate, phosphomolybdenum, Folin-Ciocalteau, DPPH.

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Phytochemical Screening and In-vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaves of Sesbania sesban (L) Merr.

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.9 ,
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Introduction: Antioxidants are micronutrients that have gained importance in recent years due to their ability to neutralize free radicals or their actions. Sesbania sesban (L) Merr is an ancient plant which is traditionally used as an antioxidant folklore plant. The present research deals with the phytochemical screening and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of the leaves of Sesbania sesban (L) Merr. Methods: The ethanolic extract of the plant Sesbania sesban (L) Merr was subjected for the phytochemical screening. The preliminary screening reports the presence of Saponin, Tanin, Phenolic compound, Flavonoid in ethanolic extracts. DPPH scavenging activity or the Hydrogen donating capacity was quantified in presence of stable DPPH radical on the basis of Blois method. NO scavenging activity was performed in the presence of nitric oxide was generated from sodium nitroprusside and measured by the Greiss reaction according to the method of Marcocci. Ascorbic acid was used as standard for the both. Results: The scavenging was found to dose dependent. Thus extract has been established the as an antioxidant. The reducing capacity serves as significant indicator of antioxidant activity. The reducing power increased with the increasing concentration of sample. Conclusion: The folklore use of Sesbania sesban (L)Merr has been proved in present research work. Further studies along with isolation and molecular mechanism on extract of Sesbania sesban (L) Merr may lead to significant out come.

Keywords: Sesbania sesban (L) Merr, DPPH scavenging activity, NO scavenging activity, Ascorbic acid, Phytochemical screening

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Antiproliferative Effect of Antioxidative Free and Bound Phenolics from Andrographis serpyllifolia

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.8 ,
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Background: Andrographis serpyllifolia, used as a medicinal plant in traditional practices in India, where in cancer patients are treated using the leaves of A. serpyllifolia. The crude extracts of A. serpyllifolia not only contain a wide variety of phenolic compounds but also show an excellent antioxidant activity. Therefore, this plant might be a good candidate for further development for its antioxidant remedies. However, the biological activities of the phenolic extracts of A. serpyllifolia on cancer have not been studied to date. Objective: To investigate the antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of the phenolics of A. serpyllifolia. Materials and methods: Free and (ASFP) and bound (ASBP) phenolics of A. serpyllifolia were isolated and determined antioxidant and antiproliferative abilities that are required for anticancer properties. Results: Individual phenolic constituents present in each of these fractions and their precise contribution to both antioxidant and antiproliferative activities were determined to justify the traditionally observed result of anticancer properties. Treatment of HeLa cells with ASFP and ASBP showed antiproliferative activity with increased malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH). The present experimental data suggest that components within the ASFP may have inherent properties that suppress cancer cell proliferation. The phenolic fractions were also screened for their potential antioxidant activities using DPPH, reducing power, DNA protection, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls model systems. ASFP exhibited highest antioxidant activity in all the model systems employed to study antioxidant activity. The positive correlation between polyphenolic content of A. serpyllifolia to its antioxidant activity was seen. Conclusion: Potent antiproliferative and DNA protective activity of ASFP and ASBP may contribute significantly against cancer pathogenesis.

Keywords: Antioxidant; Antiproliferative; Glutathione; Malondialdehyde; Phenolic fractions

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Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.7 ,
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Natural polyphenols, gallic acid, tannic acid, quercetin and salicylic acid, were investigated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities against Streptococcus mutans. Ascorbic acid, well known for its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, was used as a criterion for the polyphenols. The antimicrobial effect was assessed using the plate dilution assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each polyphenol was then determined from the antimicrobial activity results. Salicylic acid was the weakest antimicrobial with the highest MIC (3.8 mg/mL), and tannic acid was the strongest antimicrobial with the lowest MIC of 0.4 mg/mL. Antioxidant capacities were evaluated using the DMPD and ABTS decolorizing assays. These polyphenols show high antimicrobial activity and inoxidizability. Antioxidant activity for quercetin according to the DMPD method was inconclusive because it had color interference with the DMPD radicals. Although some conflicting results were observed between the DMPD and ABTS methods, the polyphenols with high antioxidant capacities still showed high antimicrobial activities, which suggest that the antioxidant capacity attributes to the antimicrobial effects.

Keywords: ABTS method, DMPD method, MIC

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Electrophilic, Free Radical and Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Detoxification Potentials of Lophiraalata Stem Bark Extract

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.6 ,
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Abstract:
The electrophilic, free radical and reactive oxygen species scavenging and detoxification potentials of Lophiraalata stem bark was evaluated. L. alata stem bark effectively scavenged DPPH radical, superoxideion and hydrogen peroxide. It produced 88% scavenging effect of DPPH radical at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ml. Aqueous extract of L. alata-stem bark produced 76% and 92% scavenging effect on superoxide ion and hydrogen peroxide respectively at 1.0 mg/ml, which compared favourably with the synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroanisole and α-tocopherol). A reducing power of L. alata stem bark was examined using K3Fe(CN)6, 2-folds reducing power potentials was exhibited by L. alata stem bark when compared with the synthetic antioxidant,butylated hydroanisole. Reactive oxygen species detoxify enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRed) were significantly induced by 90, 133, 90 and 172% respectively. While the electrophilic detoxifying enzymes NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), uridyl diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT), glutathione S- transferase (GST) and epoxide hydrolase (EPh)) were induced by 240, 81, 196 and 281% respectively at the end of the experimental period. In view of these properties, L. alata can act as a prophylactic by intervening as electrophilic, free radical and ROS scavenger and detoxifier.

Keywords: Lophiraalata, reactive oxygen species, free radicals and electrophile detoxifying enzymes

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Under Increased Hydrogen Peroxide Conditions, the Antioxidant Effects of Pequi Oil (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) to Decrease DNA Damage in Runners are Influenced by Sex, Age and Oxidative Stress-related Genetic Polymorphisms

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.5 ,
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Abstract:
Context: Exhausting exercise, increasing reactive oxygen species, can overwhelm the endogenous antioxidant system’s capacity, resulting in oxidative damage to DNA. Deficient antioxidant defenses, influenced by certain genetic polymorphisms, may contribute. Aims: We aimed to investigate whether carotenoid-rich oil from pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) could decrease DNA damage in athletes submitted to increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) conditions and in those less genetically favored by antioxidant defenses. Methods and Material: Runners’ blood (N = 125) was analyzed after races under the same environment, type, intensity and length of weekly training conditions, before and after 14 days of pequi-oil supplementation. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay before and after H2O2 exposure, with gene polymorphisms of MnSOD Val9Ala, CAT –21A/T, GPx-1 Pro198Leu, del{GSTM1}, del{GSTT1}, ACE and Haptoglobin. Results: Without additional oxidative stress imposed by H2O2, pequi oil was particularly efficient reducing DNA damage for women, age group of 20-40 years, distance of 8-10 Km and genotypes MnSOD Val/Ala, CAT TT, GPx-1 Pro/Leu, GSTM1 null, GSTT1 non-null, ACE DD and II and Hp1F-2. For treatment with H2O2at 0.25 mM, pequi oil resulted in decreased DNA damage only for running 16-21 Km; for treatment with 1 mM, decrease was for 20-40 years and genotypes GPx-1 Pro/Pro and ACE ID. Conclusions: Pequi oil’s effect on exercise-induced DNA damage was therefore influenced by sex, age and genetic polymorphisms, indicating that: long-distance races can be harmful, mainly for older athletes, due to oxidative stress above organism adaptability; genotypes showed different responses; under increased H2O2 conditions, GPx-1 Pro/Pro and ACE ID genotypes were more responsive to antioxidant supplementation.

Keywords: reactive oxygen species; hydrogen peroxide; exercise-induced oxidative stress; exercise-induced DNA damage; comet assay; gene polymorphisms related to oxidative stress

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Superoxide Dismutase Ameliorates the Bowel Alterations Induced by Diabetes Mellitus – An Experimental Study

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.4 ,
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Abstract:
Introduction: The gastrointestinal system is frequently affected in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Some of these alterations are due to oxidative stress and the production of free radicals. The present study was designed to evaluate whether treatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) exerts protection on established bowel alterations in experimental diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin. We measured the lipid peroxidation, the superoxide dismutase activity and the DNA damage. Materials and Methods: We used the anorectal pressure to evaluate the nitrosative stress and used an inflammatory score to measure the macroscopic and microscopic bowel alterations. Results: The oxidative stress and the DNA damage was elevated in DM group and reduced with the SOD administration. The use of SOD also ameliorates the inflammatory bowel alterations and the anorectal pressure. Conclusion: SOD administration showed beneficial effects in all parameters of large bowel alterations in DM rats.

Keywords: oxidative stress; diabetes; superoxide dismutase

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Assessment of Tumor Prevention in Type 1 Neurofibromatosis using a Nitroxide Compound

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.3 ,
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Abstract:
Background: Type 1 Neurofibromatosis (NF1) is a genetic disorder linked to mutations of the NF1 gene. Clinical symptoms are varied, but hallmark features of the disease include skin pigmentation anomalies (café au lait macules, skinfold freckling) and dermal neurofibromas. Method: These dermal manifestations of NF1 have previously been reported in a mouse model where Nf1+/- mice are topically treated with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol- 13-acetate (TPA). We adopted this mouse model to test the protective effects of a nitroxide antioxidant, 5-carboxy-1,1,3,3- tetramethylisoindolin-2-yloxyl (CTMIO). Antioxidants have previously been shown to increase longevity in nf1-deficient fruitflies. Doses of 4μM and 40μM CTMIO provided ad libitum in drinking water were given to Nf1-deficient mice. Results: Consistent with previous reports, Nf1-deficient mice showed a 4.7-fold increase in papilloma formation (P < 0.036). However, neither dose of CTMIO had any significant affect on papilloma formation. A non-significant decrease in skin pigmentation abnormalities was seen with 4μM but not 40μM CTMIO. Subsequent analysis of genomic DNA isolated from papillomas indicated that DMBA/TPA induced tumors did not exhibit a local loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the Nf1 locus. Conclusion: These data reveal that oral antioxidant therapy with CTMIO does not reduce tumor formation in a multistage cancer model, but also that this model does not feature LOH for Nf1.

Keywords: neurofibromatosis type 1, tumorigenesis, papillomas, antioxidant, nitroxide

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Regulation of Membrane Unsaturation as Antioxidant Adaptive Mechanism in Long-lived Animal Species

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doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.2 ,
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Abstract:
Oxidative stress resulting from biomolecular oxidative damage due to the imbalance between reactive species production and antioxidant response has become an universal constraint of life-history evolution in animals and a modulator of phenotypic development and trade-offs. Redox balance is an important selective pressure faced by most organisms, and a myriad of mechanisms have evolved to regulate and adjust this balance. This diversity of mechanisms means that organisms have a great deal of flexibility in how they deal with reactive species challenges across time, conditions, and tissue types, as well as that different organisms may evolve different strategies for dealing with similar challenges. In the following paragraphs, we review the adaption of biological membranes as structural antioxidant defense against reactive species evolved by animals. In particular, it is our goal to describe the physiological mechanisms underlying the structural adaption of cellular membranes to oxidative stress, to explain the meaning of this adaptive mechanism, and to review the state of the art about the link between membrane composition and longevity of animal species.

Keywords: Fatty acid desaturases, Membrane unsaturation, Oxidative damage, Peroxidizability index, Phylogenomic analysis, Reactive carbonyl species

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Development of the HPLC method to determine the metabolites of isomajdine isolated from Vinca herbacea Waldst. et Kit. growing in Georgia

Natia Gagua, C Aubert, Valentina Vachnadze, Aliosha Bakuridze

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2011 2(3):163-165

Background: It was decided to develop a reliable HPLC method coupled with ultraviolet detection for simultaneous determination of isomajdine and its metabolites in in vitro experiment. Methods: A liquid liquid extraction was used to extract the compounds from plasma. The analysis was carried out on a ZorbaxC18 column (250mmx4.6mm, 5&#956;m). The mobile phase consisted of water (A) and acetonitril (B) (16:84, V/V) used in gradient mode: 16 (B) for 10 min, 71 (B) for 55 minute, 16 (B) 62 minutes, pumped at 1ml/min. Results: 4 metabolites have been detected and separeted. tha linearity was invetigated. Conclusion: The calibration curves showed good linearity with correlation coefficient greater that 0.996 for the analytes in the investigated range.So the HPLC method is precise, accurate and simple.

Anticancer, cytotoxic potential of Moringa oleifera extracts on HeLa cell line

Shruti Nair, KN Varalakshmi

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2011 2(3):138-142

Background: The objective of the study was to analyze the anticancer property of Moringa oleifera on HeLa cells and also to analyze its safety on human peripheral lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: Using ethnomedical data approach, the Indian medicinal plant (M. oleifera) that is used in traditional medicine for cancer and non-cancerous diseases was collected. The crude extracts were prepared by alcoholic and aqueous extraction methods using standard protocols. The antiproliferative effects of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts were evaluated in vitro by employing MTT assay, viability test by trypan blue dye exclusion and apoptosis of the cancer cells were confirmed by DNA fragmentation analysis, ethidium bromide- acridine orange (EB/AO) staining. Results: The aqueous extract of M. oleifera showed good cytotoxicity which was concentration dependent. It was contradictory incase of methanolic and hexane extracts, the cell viability was found to increase as the concentration of extract increased. It states that not only the concentration of extract is having an effect on cell viability, even the methods and solvents of extraction are important in exerting their effects on cell lines. At the same time, the extracts showed proliferative effects on the normal human lymphocytes. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of M. oleifera exhibited cytotoxic effects on Hela cells and least cytotoxicity on lymphocytes. For plants that are used as anticancer herbal drugs, our results indicated a correlation between the reported use of these plants and their cytotoxic activity on cancer cells.

HPLC analysis of protoberberine alkaloids in Phellodendron lavallei D. introduced to Western Georgia

Mariam Meskheli, Valentina Vachnadze, Dali Berashvili, Aliosha Bakuridze

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2011 2(3):154-157

Background : Phellodendron lavallei D. is one of the oldest medicinal plants and is of current interest as a natural medicine. The aim of our study was to determine the features and amount of the content of berberine, palmatine, jatrorrhizine, and magnoflorine in the overall preparation enriched by pharmacologically active alkaloids, obtained from the bark of P. lavallei, using HPLC. Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation was carried out using a Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 &#215; 4.6 mm, 5 &#956;m; Waters), mobile phase MeOH 20 mL/mol and KH 2 PO 48:52 (pH 2.6). The UV detection was performed at 235 nm. Results: A good linear behavior over the investigated concentration range was observed with the value r2 > 0.9999. The amount of palmatine, jatrorrhizine, magnoflorine, and berberine in the extract was determined and the following results were achieved: berberine 7.6%, palmatine 0.77%, jatrorrhizine 0.9%, and magnoflorine 57%. Conclusion: Study results show that this method of HPLC might be used to determine alkaloids such as berberine, palmatine, jatrorrhizine, and magnoflorine in P. lavallei D .

Flavonoids inhibited NADPH consumption and ecdysis processes in Oncopeltus fasciatus

Juliana Oliveira Abreu Narciso, Marco Antonio Soares de Souza, Mario Geraldo de Carvalho, Mário Sergio da Rocha Gomes, Marcelo Genestra, Marise Maleck de Oliveira Cabral

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2011 2(3):133-137

Background: Piptadenia rigida is a source of flavonoids such as isoliquiritigenin ( 1 ), 7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone ( 2 ) and 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone ( 3 ). Flavonoids influence on the feeding behavior of insects besides the inhibition of the insect larvae growth. Nitric oxide (NO) seems to be conserved in invertebrate innate immunity and the NO synthase (NOS) activity has been implicated in insect immunity. Therefore, the NOS expression can be evaluated to determine the inhibition of NADPH consumption. Material and Methods: three natural flavonoids, isolated from P. rigida whose structures were determined by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectral data analysis, were evaluated on the Oncopeltus fasciatus control by molting processes and NADPH consumption in the insect intestine following mortality. Results: The flavonoids treatment on O. fasciatus showed 50% mortality and 50% ecdysis ( 1 ), 30% mortality and 43% ecdysis ( 2 ), and topical treatment with th 3 resulted in 43% ecdysis but did not show high toxicity at 100&#956;g/nymph. Intestine homogenates obtained from insects treated with flavonoids that were incubated with NADPH substrate showed percentage inhibitions of 72%, 78% and 80%, for the treatments 3, 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: The flavanone ( 3 ) was the most effective and least toxic to the insect, followed by 2 and then 1 .

Comparative toxicity assessment of three Tephrosia species on Artemia salina and animal cell lines

Sandhya Subhadra, Venkata Ramana Kanacharalapalli, Vinod Kombath Ravindran, Sai Kumar Parre, Sunitha Chintala, Rajeswar Thatipally

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2011 2(3):143-148

Background: Tephrosia calophylla, Tephrosia maxima and Tephrosia purpurea are generally used in the treatment of various ailments including cancer by the folklore of Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: The powdered root of three plants were separately extracted with chloroform and then subjected to preliminary chemical screening. The total phenolic and flavonoid content were estimated by using gallic acid and quercetin as standard. Brine shrimp hatchability and lethality tests were done by hatching the cysts of Artemia salina in brine solution. As these parameters can be associated to tumor cells, the investigation was extrapolated to animal cell lines, Daltons Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) and Erlisch Ascites Carcinoma (EAC). Trypan blue exclusion method was adopted for this screening. In all experiments dose selected were between the ranges of 10 and 200 &#956;g/mL. Results: Preliminary chemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids for T. calophylla and T. maxima; proteins, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids for T. purpurea. The total phenolic and flavonoid content was found to be highest in the case of T. calophylla followed by T. maxima and then by T. purpurea. It was observed that in all the cytotoxicity tests performed T. calophylla was proved to be most potent followed by T. maxima and then by T. purpurea. The results thus obtained were found to correlate with the values obtained for total phenolic and flavonoid content. Conclusion: The present investigation revealed that all three species of Tephrosia to be potent cytotoxic agents. Increasing order of cytotoxicity can be denoted as T.purpurea < T.maxima < T.calophylla. Further studies have to be performed to identify the chemical entity responsible for efficient cytotoxicity which may help in the development of suitable lead compounds.

Effect of oral administration of ethanolic root extract of Tinospora cordifolia on aflatoxin B 1 -induced toxicity in swiss albino mice

Veena Sharma, Rekha Gupta, Shatruhan Sharma

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2011 2(3):125-132

Background: Aflatoxins are potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic agents. This hepatotoxicity is thought to be mediated by their ability to generate reactive oxygen species and cause peroxidative damage. Considering the antioxidant properties of Tinospora cordifolia, this study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in terms of altered biochemical, hematological, serological and histopathological parameters. Methods: Sixty male swiss albino mice were taken for post exposure therapy. Results: Aflatoxin exposure elicited a significant escalation in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and depletion in reduced glutathione, protein, ascorbic acid and antioxidant enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities. Chronic aflatoxin ingestion showed a significant decline in total erythrocyte count, lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit values while total leukocyte count, platelet count and neutrophil count significantly increased in the aflatoxin-treated group. The activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate augmented significantly in the serum of aflatoxin-exposed mice suggesting hepatic damage. Aflatoxin administration decreased the content of high density lipoprotein while increased the content of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein significantly. Pathological examination of the liver tissue also supported the biochemical findings. However, post-exposure administration of Tinospora cordifolia root extract to the aflatoxin-treated group attenuated the deranged parameters to some extent. Conclusion: This study indicated that Tinospora cordifolia can be a protective regimen for aflatoxin toxicity.

Laxative potential of the ethanolic leaf extract of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. in Wistar rats with loperamide-induced constipation

A.O.T Ashafa, TO Sunmonu, AA Abass, AA Ogbe

Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 2011 2(3):158-162

Background: Constipation is a highly prevalent and often chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder affecting humans irrespective of race and color exposing victims to colorectal cancer. The present study evaluated the efficacy of the ethanolic leaf extract of Aloe vera against loperamide-induced constipation in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were constipation induced by the oral administration of loperamide (3 mg/kg body weight) while the control animals received normal saline. Constipated rats were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight/day of the ethanolic leaf extract for 7 days during which the feeding characteristics, body weight, fecal properties, and gastrointestinal transit ratio were monitored. Results: Treatment of constipated rats with the extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight for 7 days improved intestinal motility, increased fecal volume, and normalized body weight in the constipated rats. These are indications of the laxative property of the herb with the 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract showing the best efficacy. Conclusion: The effect of the extract compares favorably well with Gaviscon, a standard laxative drug. These findings have therefore lent scientific support to the use of the herb as a laxative agent in Nigerian folkloric medicine.

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    123
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     12
3456789
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31      
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567891011
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     12
3456789
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  12345
6789101112
13141516171819
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  12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
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      1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
3031     
   1234
567891011
12131415161718
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262728293031 
       
 123456
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     12
3456789
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31      
   1234
567891011
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1234567
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293031    
       
    123
45678910
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  12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
27282930   
       
      1
2345678
9101112131415
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23242526272829
3031     
    123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
252627282930 
       
 123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031   
       
1234567
891011121314
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22232425262728
29      
       
    123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031
       
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78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031   
       
      1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
30      
   1234
567891011
12131415161718
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262728293031 
       
 123456
78910111213
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282930    
       
     12
3456789
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31      
  12345
6789101112
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2728293031  
       
1234567
891011121314
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22232425262728
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    123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031
       
  12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
27282930   
       
      1
2345678
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23242526272829
3031     
      1
2345678
9101112131415
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232425262728 
       
   1234
567891011
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     12
3456789
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24252627282930
       
      1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
30      
   1234
567891011
12131415161718
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262728293031 
       
 123456
78910111213
14151617181920
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282930    
       
     12
3456789
10111213141516
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31      
     12
3456789
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  12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
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      1
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9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
3031     
    123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
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 123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031   
       
      1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
30      
   1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
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1234567
891011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
293031    
       
  12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
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1234567
891011121314
15161718192021
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2930     
       
    123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
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    123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
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78910111213
14151617181920
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28293031   
       
     12
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
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31      
   1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
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1234567
891011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
293031    
       
     12
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
       
  12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
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      1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
3031     
    123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
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 123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031   
       
      1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
30      
   1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
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  12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
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      1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
3031     
   1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
262728293031 
       
 123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
282930    
       
     12
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
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31      
   1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
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1234567
891011121314
15161718192021
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293031    
       
    123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031
       
  12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
27282930   
       
      1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
3031     
    123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
252627282930 
       
 123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031   
       
 123456
78910111213
14151617181920
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28      
       
     12
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
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31      
  12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
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    123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
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