All about Pharmacognosy

All about Pharmacognosy

Plant Database

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The University of Connecticut has developed this site dedicated to the ornamental attributes, appropriate use and identification of landscape plants. This site is geared toward the teaching of landscape plants and contains valuable information for students, homeowners and plant professionals.

At the core of this site are plant information pages that contain text, photographs, illustrations and latin name pronounciations. The plants listed in this resource are meant to create an awareness of the great variety of ornamental plants that will grow in USDA hardiness zone 6 or colder, and to encourage people to think about planting a greater variety of ornamentals. Users should be aware that some plants listed are not readily available and may actually be difficult to find.

The interactive Plant Selector is available to allow users to search the University of Connecticut Plant Database to find trees, shrubs and vines which meet specific landscape situations and express particular ornamental traits.

The majority of images on the UConn Plant Database have been provided by Dr. Mark H. Brand, University of Connecticut. Others who have contributed photographs include: Dr. Edward Corbett, University of Connecticut; Dr. Glenn Dryer, Connecticut College Arboretum; Kimberly A. Mason, University of Connecticut; Jonathan M. Lehrer, University of Connecticut; Michael Harvey, Bartlett Arboretum; Dr. Mark Starrett, University of Vermont; Margaret Taylor, Storrs, CT; and the American Conifer Society.

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Written by najib

January 27th, 2015 at 12:20 am

PlantGDB and Genome Annotation

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The web resource is currently being managed as part of an NSF-funded project (IOS-1126267) to develop robust genome annotation methods, tools, and standard training sets for the plethora of plant genomes currently or soon to be sequenced. Read more about the project here.

Previously, PlantGDB was developed under NSF grants IOS-0606909 and DBI-0110254 and DBI-0321600.

Project Objectives

The scale of sequence and other data accumulation in plant genomics is outstripping our ability effectively to annotate those genomes. The goal of this project is to develop novel, highly automated, scalable, comprehensive, and accurate approaches to genome annotation to address this problem. Project deliverables include (1) software that implements the novel prediction algorithms, (2) visualization and data access portals, and (3) a cyberinfrastructure environment implementation of the developed tools for distributed computing, sharing of protocols, and analysis provenance recording. In the long run, the project seeks to explore the extent to which genomic biology can transition from a largely descriptive to a highly predictive science driven by quantitative measurements, with algorithms and computation as the domain-adapted language. Read more about project goals and approaches.

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Written by najib

January 27th, 2015 at 12:13 am

Posted in Databases

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The Philippine Herbs and Supplements Research Database

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Philippine HerbThe Philippine Herbs and Supplements Research Database website was initially funded by the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries Biotechnology Program. The site is a repository of researches on Philippine medicinal plants, as well as of studies on health supplements used in the country. It is hoped that the website will serve as a “one-stop site” for RESEARCHERS and other stakeholders with interest on Philippine herbs and supplements.

The site is currently divided under five (5) major divisions we believe will assist researchers embarking on a research topic on Philippine herbs and supplements, marked on the MAIN MENU bar as: 1) RESEARCH DATABANK; 2) RESEARCH TOOLS; 3) MONOGRAPHS & ADVISORIES; 4) BOOKS & REVIEWS; and 5) LINKS. Hovering the mouse cursor on a selected division expands it in a drop down menu selections. The categories of selections may be readjusted in future site enhancements and upgrades.

On the TOP LEFT portion of the site below the MAIN MENU bar is the site SEARCH button for searching of documents and related articles contained on the website databases corresponding to keywords entered in the space provided.  Read the rest of this entry »

Written by najib

November 30th, 2014 at 2:24 pm

American Journal of Ethnomedicine

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American Journal of Ethnomedicine is an open access, peer-reviewed, bimonthly, online journal that aims to promote the exchange of original knowledge and research in any area of ethnomedicine.

American Journal of Ethnomedicine invites research articles and reviews based on original interdisciplinary studies on the inextricable relationships between human cultures and nature/universe, Traditional Environmental/Ecological Knowledge (TEK), folk and traditional medical knowledge, as well as the relevance of these for environmental and public health policies. American Journal of Ethnomedicine invites manuscripts and reviews based on original interdisciplinary research and studies worldwide on the inextricable relationships between human cultures and nature/universe, Traditional Environmental/Ecological Knowledge (TEK), folk and traditional medical knowledge, as well as the relevance of these for primary health care policies in developing countries. Read the rest of this entry »

Written by najib

June 16th, 2014 at 3:47 am

Pharmacological aspects of Nerium indicum Mill: A comprehensive review

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Priyankar Dey, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):156-162

Phytomedicine is the oldest medical practice known to man. Since the dawn of mankind, various plant resources are used to cure different diseases and also for a long and healthy life. The ancient knowledge of plant based medicine has transferred from generations to generations and accumulated as ethnopharmacological knowledge among different ethnic groups. India is the spanning bed of traditional phytomedicinal system where Ayurveda was born out of the knowledge of traditional medicine. In various other countries of South-Eastern Asia, South America, and in Arabian countries, still today, a great number of people rely primarily on phytomedicines to cure diseases. In the complementary and alternative medicinal systems, Nerium indicum is one such plant which is famed for its therapeutic efficiency in different diseases globally. In the present time, when the pharmaceutical companies are concentrating more toward the plant based traditional medicines to avoid the side-effects and resistance against synthetic drugs, N. indicum has proved its efficiency in different disease models. Therefore, this review comprehensively covers the medicinal and pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant N. indicum.

Written by Priyankar Dey

June 10th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Rubus fruticosus (blackberry) use as an herbal medicine

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Rameshwar Verma, Tushar Gangrade, Rakesh Punasiya, Chetan Ghulaxe

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):101-104

Wild grown European blackberry Rubus fruticosus) plants are widespread in different parts of northern countries and have been extensively used in herbal medicine. The result show that European blackberry plants are used for herbal medicinal purpose such as antimicrobial, anticancer, antidysentery, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, and also good antioxidant. Blackberry plant (R. fruticosus) contains tannins, gallic acid, villosin, and iron; fruit contains vitamin C, niacin (nicotinic acid), pectin, sugars, and anthocyanins and also contains of berries albumin, citric acid, malic acid, and pectin. Some selected physicochemical characteristics such as berry weight, protein, pH, total acidity, soluble solid, reducing sugar, vitamin C, total antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial screening of fruit, leaves, root, and stem of R. fruticosus, and total anthocyanins of four preselected wild grown European blackberry (R. fruticosus) fruits are investigated. Significant differences on most of the chemical content detect among the medicinal use. The highest protein content (2%), the genotypes with the antioxidant activity of standard butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) studies 85.07%. Different cultivars grown in same location consistently show differences in antioxidant capacity.

Written by Rameshwar Verma

June 10th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Cytotoxicity of dietary flavonoids on different human cancer types

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Katrin Sak

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):122-146

Flavonoids are ubiquitous in nature. They are also in food, providing an essential link between diet and prevention of chronic diseases including cancer. Anticancer effects of these polyphenols depend on several factors: Their chemical structure and concentration, and also on the type of cancer. Malignant cells from different tissues reveal somewhat different sensitivity toward flavonoids and, therefore, the preferences of the most common dietary flavonoids to various human cancer types are analyzed in this review. While luteolin and kaempferol can be considered as promising candidate agents for treatment of gastric and ovarian cancers, respectively, apigenin, chrysin, and luteolin have good perspectives as potent antitumor agents for cervical cancer; cells from main sites of flavonoid metabolism (colon and liver) reveal rather large fluctuations in anticancer activity probably due to exposure to various metabolites with different activities. Anticancer effect of flavonoids toward blood cancer cells depend on their myeloid, lymphoid, or erythroid origin; cytotoxic effects of flavonoids on breast and prostate cancer cells are highly related to the expression of hormone receptors. Different flavonoids are often preferentially present in certain food items, and knowledge about the malignant tissue-specific anticancer effects of flavonoids could be purposely applied both in chemoprevention as well as in cancer treatment.

Written by Katrin Sak

June 10th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Psidium guajava: A review on its potential as an adjunct in treating periodontal disease

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K. Ravi, P. Divyashree

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):96-100

Plants for thousands of years have been used to enhance health and for medicinal purposes. Psidium guajava is one which has an enormous wealth of medicinal value. It for long has been known for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic properties. Despite of its widespread biologic uses there is a dearth of information on its therapeutic effect in the treatment of periodontal disease. Hence, this review is an attempt to highlight the potential of P. guajava in the treatment of periodontal disease. Internet databases PubMed, Google Scholar were searched and the most relevant articles were considered for review.

Written by K. Ravi

June 10th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Molecule mechanism of stem cells in Arabidopsis thaliana

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Wenjin Zhang, Rongming Yu

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):105-112

Plants possess the ability to continually produce new tissues and organs throughout their life. Unlike animals, plants are exposed to extreme variations in environmental conditions over the course of their lives. The vitality of plants is so powerful that they can survive several hundreds of years or even more making it an amazing miracle that comes from plant stem cells. The stem cells continue to divide to renew themselves and provide cells for the formation of leaves, stems, and flowers. Stem cells are not only quiescent but also immortal, pluripotent and homeostatic. Stem cells are the magic cells that repair tissues and regenerate organs. During the past decade, scholars around the world have paid more and more attention toward plant stem cells. At present, the major challenge is in relating molecule action mechanism to root apical meristem, shoot apical meristem and vascular system. The coordination between stem cells maintenance and differentiation is critical for normal plant growth and development. Elements such as phytohormones, transcription factors and some other known or unknown genes cooperate to balance this process. In this review, Arabidopsis thaliana as a pioneer system, we highlight recent developments in molecule modulating, illustrating how plant stem cells generate new mechanistic insights into the regulation of plants growth and development.

Written by Wenjin Zhang

June 10th, 2014 at 12:00 am

Intensification of bioactive compounds extraction from medicinal plants using ultrasonic irradiation

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Renata Vardanega, Diego T. Santos, M. Angela A. Meireles

Pharmacognosy Reviews 2014 8(16):88-95

Extraction processes are largely used in many chemical, biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries for recovery of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants. To replace the conventional extraction techniques, new techniques as high-pressure extraction processes that use environment friendly solvents have been developed. However, these techniques, sometimes, are associated with low extraction rate. The ultrasound can be effectively used to improve the extraction rate by the increasing the mass transfer and possible rupture of cell wall due the formation of microcavities leading to higher product yields with reduced processing time and solvent consumption. This review presents a brief survey about the mechanism and aspects that affecting the ultrasound assisted extraction focusing on the use of ultrasound irradiation for high-pressure extraction processes intensification.

Written by Renata Vardanega

June 10th, 2014 at 12:00 am